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CASE REPORT
Year : 2011  |  Volume : 20  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 64-65  Table of Contents     

Delusional parasitosis of face in a factory worker


Department of Psychiatry, UCMS and GTB Hospital, Dilshad Garden, Delhi, India

Date of Web Publication12-Jul-2012

Correspondence Address:
Manjeet S Bhatia
D-1 Naraina Vihar, New Delhi - 110 028
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0972-6748.98422

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   Abstract 

Delusional parasitosis is a form of monohypochondriacal psychosis, a condition sometimes encountered in psychiatric or dermatological clinical practice. The exact etiology and outcome of this condition is not well known. A patient with delusional parasitosis of face who responded to aripiprazole is described.

Keywords: Aripiprazole, delusional parasitosis, face


How to cite this article:
Bhatia MS, Jhanjee A, Srivastava S. Delusional parasitosis of face in a factory worker. Ind Psychiatry J 2011;20:64-5

How to cite this URL:
Bhatia MS, Jhanjee A, Srivastava S. Delusional parasitosis of face in a factory worker. Ind Psychiatry J [serial online] 2011 [cited 2019 Aug 26];20:64-5. Available from: http://www.industrialpsychiatry.org/text.asp?2011/20/1/64/98422

Delusional parasitosis, a term coined by Wilson and Miller, [1] is an uncommon condition characterized by the single hypochondriacal, delusional system that the patient is infested with insects. Munro [2] and Bhatia et al.[3] described the few largest series and highlighted its diagnostic criteria. This condition has occasionally been found to be associated with systemic conditions like pellagra, vitamin B 12 deficiency, cerebrovascular disease and temporal lobe epilepsy, and leprosy. [4],[5],[6],[7] We report a case of delusional parasitosis affecting face, which also responded to a second-generation antipsychotic, aripiprazole.


   Case Report Top


The patient was a 36-year-old married male working in a garment factory as a security guard. He was high school passed, earning about ` 10,000/- per month. He was living with wife and two children in his one-room own house. There were no familial, financial, or occupational stresses. He presented with a 7-month history of itching on the face, which he attributed to infestation by insects. He had himself used different antiseptics for killing or removing insects but felt no relief. On examination by a dermatologist, he was found to have no evidence of infestation. The patient had also brought excoriated skin specimen in a matchbox as evidence of infestation (matchbox sign). On his request, the histopathologic examination of the specimen was done, which revealed excoriated skin scales and no parasites. The marks due to scratching were present on the side of face. He was told that it is a disease that requires assessment and treatment from psychiatry outpatient department.

The detailed psychiatric workup revealed preoccupation with the complaint that he is being infested with insects over the face. There had been a no change in the symptom since the onset. He said that that he was unaware of the source of infestation but believed that it was not related to his occupation or accommodation as no other person from there had similar complaints. Due to this infestation, he had developed anxiety and sleeplessness and was unable to do his job efficiently. He did not believe the suggestion of his friends and wife that there is no such infestation with insects. He was finally brought by his wife to the hospital. Detailed systemic examination including neurological examination and relevant investigations did not reveal any abnormality. There no past history of any chronic psychiatric disorder, chronic physical disease, or drug abuse. Family history was also normal. Mental state examination revealed a middle-aged man of endomorphic build. Psychomotor activity and speech were normal. There was no perceptual abnormality. He was anxious. Thinking revealed the presence of delusions of being infested by small insects. No other psychopathology was detected. Higher mental functions were normal.

The patient was started on aripiprazole 10 mg/day, which was gradually increased to 20 mg/day in 3 weeks time. There was complete remission, and on following him up for 6 months, he did not develop the delusion again.


   Discussion Top


In our patient, itching on face along with fear of being infested with worms seems to have triggered off the delusion of parasitosis. The exact mechanism of the evolution of the delusional system in this disorder is not known. One hypothesis is that these patients suffer a profound breakdown in their ability to discriminate between normal and abnormal somatic perceptions and the delusion may be mediated by endogenous dysfunction in the limbic system. This dysfunction may be the result of a pathological overactivity of the dopaminergic system, as evidenced by the efficacy of the specific dopamine antagonist, pimozide. [2],[3],[8] The histopathology of skin biopsy and specimen brought by the patients show dermatitis, excoriation, ulceration, or inflammation, but no parasites. [9] In the present case also, there were no parasites seen, but it showed matchbox sign classically reported with this disorder. There are reports mentioning the usefulness of aripiprazole in the treatment of delusional parasitosis. [10],[11] Aripiprazole has a partial agonist activity at dopamine D 2 and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors and has a favorable side-effect profile relative to other antipsychotics, which may be a particular benefit in primary delusional parasitosis as these patients require long-term treatment and are often reluctant to consider antipsychotic treatment and have poor compliance due to the adverse effects of medication. [11] Aripiprazole has a long half-life (about 60 h) compared with other oral antipsychotics, [12] which means that occasional missed doses are less likely to affect the clinical outcome. Consequently, aripiprazole may be particularly useful when intermittent adherence to medication is a problem, a situation often encountered in primary delusional parasitosis. [10] The presentation of delusional parasitosis with face being affected and complete response with treatment has been rarely reported. [1] Some authors have found trigeminal nerve roots' affliction as the cause of parasitosis, so magnetic resonance imaging of the area would be informative. [13] The present case was followed up for 6 months and did not develop the delusion again. The exact duration of treatment is not known, but it is believed that these patients usually require long-term treatment because relapse rate is high on stopping the treatment. [14]

 
   References Top

1.Bhatia MS, Shome S, Choudhary S, Gautam RK. Delusional parasitosis: A series of 25 cases. Indian J Dermatol 1996;41:5-8.  Back to cited text no. 1
  Medknow Journal  
2.Munro A. Monosymptomatic hypochondriacal psychosis. Br J Hosp Med 1980;24:34-8.  Back to cited text no. 2
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3.Bhatia MS, Jagawat T, Choudhary S. Delusional parasitosis: A clinical profile. Int J Psychiatry Med 2000;30:83-91.  Back to cited text no. 3
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4.Rook A, Savin JA, Wilkinson DS. Psychocutaneous disorders. Textbook of Dermatology. In: Rook A, Wilkinson DS, Ebling FJ, editors. 4 th ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1986.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Sheppard NP, O' Loughlin S, Malone JP. Psychogenic skin disease: A review of 35 cases. Br J Psychiatry 1986;149:636-43.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Wilson JW, Miller HE. Delusions of parasistosis (Acarophobia). Arch Dermatol Syphilis 1946;54:39.  Back to cited text no. 6
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7.Bhatia MS, Chandra R, Kamra A. Delusional parasitosis in Leprosy. Indian J Lepr 2002;74:159-60.  Back to cited text no. 7
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8.Lepping P, Russel I, Freudenmann RW. Antipsychotic treatment of primary delusional parasitosis: Systematic review. Br J Psychiatry 2007;191:198-205.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Hylwa SA, Bury JE, Davies MD, Pittelkow M, Bostwick M. Delusion of infestation including delusions of parasitosis: Results of histopathological examination of skin biopsy and patient provided skin specimens. Arch Dermatol 2011;147:1041-5.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Narayan V, Ashfaq M, Haddad PM. Aripiprazole in the treatment of primary delusional parasitosis. Br J Psychiatry 2008;193:258.  Back to cited text no. 10
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11.Bennasar A, Guilabert A, Alsina M, Pintor L, Mascaro JM Jr. Treatment of delusional parasitosis with aripiprazole. Arch Dermatol 2009;145:500-1.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Mallikaarjun S, Salazar DE, Bramer SL. Pharmacokinetics, tolerability, and safety of aripiprazole following multiple oral dosing in normal healthy volunteers. J Clin Pharmacol 2004;44:179-87.  Back to cited text no. 12
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13.Frazier LG, Azad A, Scholma RS, Joshi KG. A case of delusional parasitosis associated with multiple lesions at the root of trigeminal nerve. Psychiatry 2010;7:33-7.   Back to cited text no. 13
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14.Wong S, Bewley A. Patients with delusional infestation (Delusional parasitosis) often require prolonged treatment as recurrence of symptoms after cessation of treatment is common: An observational study. Br J Dermatol 2011;165:893-6.  Back to cited text no. 14
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  



This article has been cited by
1 Delusional infestation: A clinical profile
M.S. Bhatia,Anurag Jhanjee,Shruti Srivastava
Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2013; 6(2): 124
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

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