Home | About IPJ | Editorial board | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Instructions | Contact us |   Login 
Industrial Psychiatry Journal
Search Articles   
    
Advanced search   
 


 
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 11-17  Table of Contents     

Psychological issues in pediatric obesity


Department of Psychiatry, L.T.M. Medical College and L.T.M.G. Hospital, Sion, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Date of Web Publication22-Apr-2013

Correspondence Address:
Avinash De Sousa
Department of Psychiatry, L.T.M. Medical College and L.T.M.G. Hospital, Sion, Mumbai - 400 022, Maharashtra
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0972-6748.110941

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 

Pediatric obesity is a major health problem and has reached epidemiological proportions today. The present paper reviews major psychological issues in pediatric obesity from a developmental perspective. Research and literature has shown that a number of developmental, family, maternal and child factors are responsible in the genesis of pediatric obesity. Family food habits, early developmental lifestyle of the child, parenting, early family relationships and harmony all contribute towards the growth and development of a child. The present review focuses on the role of developmental psychological factors in the pathogenesis of pediatric obesity and highlights the developmental factors that must be kept in mind when evaluating a case of pediatric obesity.

Keywords: Developmental factors, pediatric obesity, psychological issues


How to cite this article:
Kalra G, De Sousa A, Sonavane S, Shah N. Psychological issues in pediatric obesity. Ind Psychiatry J 2012;21:11-7

How to cite this URL:
Kalra G, De Sousa A, Sonavane S, Shah N. Psychological issues in pediatric obesity. Ind Psychiatry J [serial online] 2012 [cited 2018 Dec 12];21:11-7. Available from: http://www.industrialpsychiatry.org/text.asp?2012/21/1/11/110941

Obesity, an important health problem, has definitely increased in prevalence in the past few decades throughout the world, more so in the developed countries. And as the developing countries increasingly adapt to the Western lifestyle and food habits, the problem of obesity seems to be turning into epidemic proportions in these nations too, involving the extremes of ages as much as the middle age populace. More and more children and adolescents with obesity are being detected today worldwide. [1] Obese persons accumulate so much body fat that it might have a negative effect on their health, not only physical like cardiovascular disease and Type 2 diabetes, but also mental health. [2]

It has been noted across various reviews that measurement of adult obesity is easier than measurement of pediatric obesity. [3] As per the World Health Organization (WHO), measuring overweight and obesity in children aged 5 to 14 is difficult since there is no standard definition of childhood obesity applied worldwide. The use of the same body-mass index (BMI) cutoff centiles passing through the adult BMI cutoff of 30, has been suggested as reasonable, [4],[5] although there is still a debate regarding the cutoff limits of BMI to define overweight and obesity in children. [6] Studies on pediatric obesity vary as per the definition of the condition and BMI cutoffs. [5]


   Childhood Obesity: Scope of The Problem Top


Prevalence of childhood obesity is rising around the world. [7],[8] Once considered a problem of affluent countries, it is now becoming a common problem even in the developing countries. [9],[10],[11] More than 1.1 billion adults and 10% children are classified as overweight or obese. [12] WHO figures are somewhat similar and estimate at least 20 million children under the age of five years as overweight. [3]

Childhood obesity is now being rightly referred to as a global epidemic [10] and WHO estimates that by 2015, approximately 2.3 billion adults will be overweight and more than 700 million children and adolescents will be obese. The global prevalence of childhood obesity varies from 30% in the US to less than 2% in sub-Saharan Africa. The prevalence of overweight and/or obesity in school children is 20% in the UK and Australia, 16.2% in Brazil, 15.8% in Saudi Arabia, 15.6% in Thailand, 10% in Japan and 7.8-10.9% in Iran. [13],[14],[15] The prevalence of childhood obesity was found to be much less in the two Indian cities of Delhi and Chennai (6.2% and 7.4% respectively). [16],[17] With rising prevalence, we need to focus on the holistic management of pediatric obesity without neglecting developmental factors and psychological issues that may play a crucial role in its pathogenesis. Children in developing nations presently suffer from a double jeopardy of malnutrition; urban children are afflicted with over-nutrition while the rural and slum children suffer from effects of under-nutrition. [18]

Childhood obesity is associated with a higher chance of premature death and disability in adulthood [19],[20] with 50-80% of these obese children growing up to become obese adults. [21],[22],[23],[24] The vicious cycle of obesity thus starts in childhood, when the child starts gaining weight due to less physical activity and intake of more junk food. [25]


   Method of Conducting The Current Review Top


For identifying articles that focused on pediatric obesity and its developmental factors, the terms 'pediatric obesity', 'developmental factors', 'childhood factors in pediatric obesity', 'family factors in pediatric obesity', and 'psychological issues in pediatric obesity' were used. For identifying articles that focused on specific terms, 'diet', 'family functioning', 'depression', 'eating habits', 'parental factors', 'junk food', 'genetic factors', and other terms were used. These two search strategy results were combined with an "and" statement in the following databases with the timeframe being specified from 1995 through 2011. The databases used were Medline, Pubmed and the Cochrane Database on Systematic Reviews. In total, 229 articles were identified which included reviews, mini reviews and randomized controlled trials in populations with pediatric obesity.

We included trials and quantitative studies with sample sizes of more than 40 participants and that reported either mean scores or percentages with appropriate statistical analysis. All authors reviewed all the review articles and trials and the most relevant ones were chosen for this review. The papers reviewed in this article include those on pediatric obesity interspersed with knowledge based on clinical practice by all the authors in this field. All the authors are psychiatrists working in a tertiary hospital and medical college where there is a consultation liaison between the pediatrics and psychiatry departments on a regular basis.


   Developmental Psychological Factors Related to Eating Habits and Food Environment Top


A large number of studies have shown that the early food environment of obese children differs markedly from that of other children. [26] Children who are obese often consume a greater quantity of food and the quality of food is often high in caloric content. They often have elevated food portion sizes, increased fat intake and eat fewer fruits and vegetables from an early age compared to normal weight children of the same age. [27] Obese children also have less hours of physical activity and spend a greater amount of time watching television or playing video games. In the modern era, easy availability of private cars and elevators has contributed equally. This sedentary lifestyle in tune with high caloric intake often contributes to obesity. [28] It is well known that a large number of children with pediatric obesity have parents who are obese too. Obese parents contribute to specific food environments being created from an early age. There is an exposure to high-fat foods from an early age with an orienting towards fatty food from the toddler years. Shopping patterns with high caloric food that is often stocked up at home serves as easy access to these food stuffs and weight gain ensues. [29],[30] Certain studies have also mentioned the continuous use of air conditioning from birth and eating habits as determinants of pediatric obesity. [31]

Food orientation is determined in some ways when food serves a reward for desired behavior. This is often done by parents in their behavioral training of the child from his toddler years who seems to derive pleasure from food. There is thus a greater desire for food and eating is looked forward to. [32] There is a marked discrepancy between energy expenditure and energy intake in children with pediatric obesity. Obese children engage in repeated high caloric snacking and bingeing throughout the day with little or no physical activity. [33] Obese children have a preference for high-fat sweet foods like cakes, ice cream, soft drinks and biscuits. Food is often a source of comfort rather than a mere source of nutrition. Many of them lie or cheat regarding food and may hoard food in their rooms which they snack upon from time to time. [34] Obese children are known to eat more in the evening (after 6 pm) and eat less in the morning. This also depends on the social dietary habits of the family. Obese children also eat more at night, have heavier dinners than breakfasts and eat out more often than their non-obese peers. [35] Such children are known to eat more in groups than alone and they gulp down their food taking fewer bites per morsel than their non-obese peers. [36] It is well known that eating in groups leads to eating more than what one normally would. Families who eat out more often are known to have more children who are obese. Excess soda and soft drink consumption from an early age has also been linked to pediatric obesity. Increased number of family members has been identified as a risk factor for pediatric obesity though no direct theory has been proposed. [37] There has been an association between night eating syndrome and adult obesity. Night eating is a common phenomenon in pediatric obese children but there is a dearth of studies supporting an association. [38]


   Developmental Factors Affecting Body Image Discontent and Self-Esteem in Pediatric Obesity Top


Body shape discontent has been noted in the pediatric obese population. Many children with pediatric obesity are unhappy with their body shape and feel they are not good-looking. This often starts early in their life when they often face ridicule from parents and family members for their body size and shape. [39] There is marked low self-esteem and self-worth noted in children with pediatric obesity. Overweight parents have a preference for thinner babies and often ridicule their own children if obese, causing greater damage to their child's self-esteem. [40] An obese child is often victimized at school and subjected to bullying and calling of nicknames by his peers. The child is often made fun of with respect to his body size and fatness. In some instances, even teachers may call these children certain names in the classroom. This is a phenomenon noted across both young children and adolescents. [41] Apart from being the victim, the obese child may be the bully too. He may at times bully others due to his size and very often the bullying is a result of wanting to feel superior and powerful over others while trying to overcome feelings of inferiority that lie within owing to his own obesity and body image discontent. Bullying in this manner often starts at kindergarten and continues thereafter. [42]


   Developmental Family Issues in Pediatric Obesity Top


A large number of developmental family factors have been studied as mediators of pediatric obesity. From an early age, parents of children with pediatric obesity may fail to understand their baby's cues and every signal from the baby is treated as a want of food. Thus the baby gets tuned to the fact that food is a source of comfort and this serves as the only source of satiation for him or her. [43] Obese parents are more rigid about food habits and may often criticize their own child if he puts on weight. They are also more rigid about discipline and stringent about food allocation to the child. The child may in turn get defiant right in early childhood and eat when the parents are away or eat from places outside the home contributing further to their own weight gain. [44] It is well known that parents of obese children directly criticize the child with respect to his weight and there is a differential handling of children in the family. [45] Studies have demonstrated that obese children belong to families that are less cohesive. There is a weak marital alliance in such families with existing interpersonal parental stressors. Overprotective mothers and weak, timid fathers is a pattern that has been noted in families of children with pediatric obesity. [46] In some cases, absence of one parent (due to being away on work or due to death) may lead to overprotection and pampering by the other parent which in turn along with food leniency may be causative for pediatric obesity. [47]


   Developmental Psychological Problems in Pediatric Obesity Top


It is well known that children with obesity face an enormous amount of psychological stress. Anxiety as a symptom as well as disorder has been reported in this population. [48] Many of these children are over-protected and pampered leading to a separation anxiety from their parents whenever a stressful situation may arise. They also harbor an anxiety related to their weight and food habits. They may be fussy over food while checking their weight many times a day once anxiety regarding further weight gain creeps in. They are anxious even when they think of overeating or under-eating. Many of them resort to crash dieting only to end up eating more. [49]

Children with obesity suffer from depression too. They often may not present with a depressed mood or frank depressive symptoms but with somatic and bodily symptoms which often confounds the diagnosis. Depression may also manifest in the form of aggressive behavior, anger, conduct problems, bullying (where the obese child is a bully rather than a victim) and oppositional defiant symptoms. [50],[51]

Many of them have sub-threshold depression where they may not match the clinical criteria for depression but may still have isolated or few symptoms of depression. [52] Depression in these children is associated with guilt regarding weight gain and food consumption. Low self-esteem and poor self-worth may be another factor. Often being bullied and being ridiculed by parents and family members, serves both as a causative and aggravating factor for depression in this population. This may be coupled with loneliness and body image discontent. [53] Fatigue may often be a presenting symptom of depression in many children coupled with poor academic performance. In fact it may be the masquerading symptom of the vegetative signs of major depression in these children. [54] Suicidal ideations and suicidal attempts have been noted in this population in a frequency slightly greater than the general population, but it is still an area that needs intervention. [55] To conclude, one must note that depression and anxiety serve as both a cause and a consequence of pediatric obesity.

It is worthwhile to mention that subtle cognitive impairments have been noted in pediatric obesity. These children score lower than normal controls on various performance tests and also generate IQ scores 3-10 points lower than the normal population for their age. [56] Certain neuroimaging studies in pediatric obesity have demonstrated white matter lesions in these children at an early age mimicking certain findings seen in Alzheimer's and vascular dementia. This is an area that needs to be further researched and the findings need validation. [57]

While many psychological problems besiege pediatric obesity, it may also be an accompaniment to many psychosomatic illnesses. Pediatric obesity is known to be found in a greater proportion in children with bronchial asthma where steroid inhaler use may be a contributing factor. Pediatric obesity is not a risk factor for childhood-onset asthma but many children who suffer from asthma have pediatric obesity. [58] Sleep problems are well known in pediatric obesity. Such children have shorter sleep duration than normal peers and also suffer in greater frequency from obstructive sleep apnea. This may be a contributory factor to the cognitive impairment noted in this group. Reduced sleep may alter hormones ghrelin and leptin that may in turn increase the risk of weight gain. [59],[60] Lack of breast feeding by the mother, irrespective of causes, has been demonstrated to be another risk factor for pediatric obesity. The associations between the two as well as the cause and effect relationship are not yet clear. [61] Infections in early life, with consequent steroid use in infancy and toddlerhood are known to trigger endocrine or metabolic pathways that may lead to pediatric obesity at a later stage. [62]

Pediatric obesity may be seen in a number of endocrine conditions and mental retardation, discussion of which are beyond the scope of this review. [63] Thus psychological factors that affect the obese child early may lead to various long-term sequelae.


   Long-Term Developmental Psychological Consequences of Pediatric Obesity Top


Overweight and obesity go hand in hand with an increased health risk, both physical and mental. As early as 1940, authors began to show interest and discuss the psychological functioning of obese children and adolescents and their long-term effects. [64] Obesity in children in particular may have negative social and economic consequences [65] owing to the young age and particular sensitivity of the child, since identity formation, body image and self-esteem are major issues in this age group. There are more chances of overweight individuals being often negatively stereotyped. [66],[67]

Overweight children and adolescents are at a greater risk of being bullied and teased about their weight by school friends and even family members than average weight adolescents. This is a process that may start in early childhood and continue through school years into the late teenage years. [68] Weight-related teasing may lead to various deleterious consequences in the long run [69] and psychological comorbidity like depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. In some cases depression may have multiple relapses and remissions and run a prolonged longitudinal course with suicidal attempts interspersed between episodes. [70]

Overweight children are at a higher risk of low self-esteem and poor emotional wellbeing, [71],[72] poorer social skills and social difficulties [73],[74] depression, [50],[51] anxiety [74] and disordered eating behaviors. [75] These psychological comorbidities coupled with unhealthy weight control and disordered eating behaviors may be early warning signs of more severe eating disturbances later on in life. There is also a possibility that morbidly obese children may be less anxious and depressed, for the simple reason that they have been obese for a long time or because they have become fatalistic regarding the large amount of weight that they have to lose. [73]

These overweight children and adolescents with comorbid psychiatric problems and issues with socialization and self-esteem form a special at-risk sub-group within the obese adolescent population and thus need special interventions.


   The Impact of Urbanization and Industrialization on Childhood Obesity Top


With changing times, there have been changes in patterns of food consumption, dietary practices and eating. It is well known that obesity in adults has been linked to urbanization and the sedentary lifestyle that comes with it. [76] There are pathways wherein industrialization has contributed to childhood obesity in its own way. This could in a way be attributed to the increasing industrialization and economic changes that are taking place, somehow leading to a more sedentary working lifestyle and massive changes in our food systems, a macro process often called the nutrition transition. Nutrition transition also refers to the substantive shifts that have been seen in recent times in diets of people across different countries and has been hypothesized to accompany the closely linked processes of urbanization, modernization, industrialization and globalization. This transition encompasses a gradual shift of foods to more processed ones that are laden with sugars and saturated fats and is accompanied by simultaneous transitions in lifestyles that promote sedentism. [77] This calls for an in-depth exploration of factors in such obesogenic environments that may contribute to these variations in nutritional parameters. This term 'obesogenic environment' was coined to argue that the physical, economic, social and cultural environments of the industrialized nations encouraged positive energy balance in their populations. [78]


   Management of Developmental Psychological Issues in Pediatric Obesity Top


While it cannot be underestimated that one should strive to decrease the prevalence of obesity, it is equally necessary to promote the psychosocial and physical wellbeing of overweight individuals and ensure that they are not being ill-treated for being overweight. It is harder to treat obesity in adults than in children. [79] Effective prevention and management of childhood obesity is easier and may result in effective prevention of adult obesity.

There is a possibility that overweight children and youth are somewhat less likely to engage in health-promoting behaviors. [80] Evidence also shows that treatment compliance is poor in obese children and adolescents with comorbid psychiatric disorders. Interventions with healthcare providers, parents, school personnel, and policy can contribute to the prevention of teasing and its associated weight-related attitudes and behaviors. [81],[82] Promotion of efforts to reduce excess caloric intake with efforts to increase energy expenditure should receive paramount attention in the design of health programs. It is important to promote the development of culturally appropriate intervention strategies that are shown to be effective among youth of diverse backgrounds. [83]

There are many parallels between obesity and addictive behavior. Because of common neurobiological pathways in the brain, addiction and obesity have shared certain methods of research and treatment. Motivational enhancement and cognitive-behavior therapeutic strategies used in addiction treatments are equally useful in the treatment of pediatric obesity. [84] Cognitive-behavioral therapy combined with family-based intervention proves most effective, especially for children who are morbidly obese and have life-threatening medical conditions. The program involves a series of treatment modules: (1) starting treatment: preadmission phase; (2) establishing and maintaining weight loss; (3) encouraging acceptance, addressing realistic expectations to body weight, and addressing body image concerns; and (4) long-term weight maintenance. The program must include family intervention and physical activity intervention. The treatment team must be multidisciplinary and must involve a pediatrician, psychiatrist, counseling psychologist, family therapist and physiotherapist. Some programs involve use of a pediatric social worker who visits the home of the concerned child and monitors the interventions and family environment during the treatment program. [85]

There have been significant increases in the use of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) for adolescents from 1996 to 2010. [86] Newer antipsychotics are associated with rapid weight gain and with other adverse effects, such as dyslipidemia. Clozapine and olanzapine produce the greatest weight gain, ziprasidone and aripiprazole produce less weight gain, and quetiapine and risperidone cause intermediate effects. Appetite stimulation is probably a key cause of weight gain, but genetic polymorphisms can modify the weight response during treatment with SGAs. Nizatidine, amantadine, reboxetine, topiramate, sibutramine, and metformin have been used in preventing or reversing SGA weight gain with some success, but side-effects exist for these agents as well. Metformin has been the most studied. [87] Few agents are approved for obesity, and there have been many safety concerns. Rimonabant (Acomplia), which blocks the endocannabinoid system, showed promise, but it was not approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) because suicidal ideation was identified during clinical trials. [88] The combination of fenfluramine and phentermine produced primary pulmonary hypertension and harmed many patients, and it serves as a warning to put safety first in the treatment of obesity. [89] Sibutramine acts on the brain to inhibit deactivation of norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine, and it decreases appetite. Orlistat blocks fat absorption by reversibly inhibiting pancreatic lipase. [88]

Although there are risks associated with obesity surgery, there is some evidence to show that laparoscopic gastric banding and other bariatric surgical approaches may be useful in the management of pediatric obesity in older children. Studies have shown long-lasting efficacy of 5-8 years' weight maintenance with such procedures though further studies in the adolescent population are still warranted. [90] It is prudent that psychological support and counseling plays a huge role in the long-term management of weight gain after such surgeries. [91]

Interventions at the school and community level that promote awareness and education about healthy eating habits, lifestyle patterns and regular exercise are essential to prevent obesity in children. [92],[93] Stringent advertisement guidelines and media intervention that prevent false propaganda of unhealthy foods by celebrities that children adore is another step in this regard. [94] Thus interventions at a biopsychosocial level using a multidisciplinary team approach forms the cornerstone in the effective management of pediatric obesity.

 
   References Top

1.Caballero B. The global epidemic of obesity: An overview. Epidemiol Rev 2007;29:1-5.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Wyatt SB, Winters KP, Dubbert PM. Overweight and obesity: Prevalence, consequences and causes of a growing public health problem. Am J Med Sci 2006;331:166-74.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.WHO- Obesity and overweight. Sept 2006. Available from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/index.html [Last accessed on 2010 Nov 7].  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Dietz WH, Bellizi MC. Introduction: The use of body mass index to assess obesity in children. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:123S-5S.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. BMJ 2000;320:1240-3.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Luciano A, Livieri C, Di Pietro ME, Bergamaschi G, Maffeis C. Definition of obesity in childhood: Criteria and limits. Minerva Pediatr 2003;55:453-9.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Micic D. Obesity in children and adolescent--a new epidemic? Consequences in adult life. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2001;14 Suppl 5:1345-52; discussion 1365.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Wang Y, Lobstein T. Worldwide trends in childhood overweight and obesity. Int J Pediatr Obes 2006;1:11-25.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Kumar S, Mahabalaraju DK, Anuroopa MS. Prevalence of obesity and its influencing factor among affluent school children of Davangere city. Indian J Community Med 2007;32:15-7.  Back to cited text no. 9
  Medknow Journal  
10.Flynn MA, McNeil DA, Maloff B, Mutasingwa D, Wu M, Ford C, et al. Reducing obesity and related chronic disease risk in children and youth: A synthesis of evidence with 'best practice' recommendations. Obes Rev 2006;7 Suppl 1:7-66.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.WHO Expert Consultation. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet 2004;363:157-63.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Haslam DW, James WP. Obesity. Lancet 2005;366:1197-209.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Kelishadi R, Ardalan G, Gheiratmand R, Majdzadeh R, Hosseini M, Gouya MM, et al. Thinness, overweight and obesity in a national sample of Iranian children and adolescents: CASPIAN Study. Child Care Health Dev 2008;34:44-54.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Mo-suwan L, Junjana C, Puetapaiboon A. Increasing obesity in school children in Transitional society and the effect of the weight control programme. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 1993;24:590-4.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.de Souza Ferreira JE, da Veiga GV. Eating disorder risk behavior in Brazilian adolescents from low socio-economic level. Appetite 2008;51:249-55.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.Kapil U, Singh P, Pathak P, Dwiwedi S, Bhasin S. Prevalence of obesity among affluent adolescent school children in Delhi. Indian Pediatr 2002;39:449-52.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.Subramanyam V, Jayashree R, Rafi M. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in affluent adolescent school girls in Chennai in 1981 and 1998. Indian Pediatr 2003;40:775-9.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.Chatterjee P. India sees parallel rise in malnutrition and obesity. Lancet 2002;360:1948.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.Dietz WH. Childhood weight affects adult morbidity and mortality. J Nutr 1998;128(2 Suppl):411S-4S.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.Must A, Jacques PF, Dallal GE, Bajema CJ, Dietz WH. Long-term morbidity and mortality of overweight adolescents. A follow-up of the Harvard Growth Study of 1922 to 1935. New Engl J Med 1992;327:1350-5.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.Styne DM. Childhood obesity and adolescent obesity. Prevalence and significance. Pediatr Clin North Am 2001;48:823-54, vii.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.Braddon FE, Rodgers B, Wadsworth ME, Davies JM. Onset of obesity in a 36 year birth cohort study. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986;293:299-303.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.Serdula MK, Ivery D, Coates RJ, Freedman DS, Williamson DF, Byers T. Do obese children become obese adults? A review of the literature. Prev Med 1993;22:167-77.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.Clarke WR, Lauer RM. Does childhood obesity track into adulthood? Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1993;33:423-30.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.Dixon H, Scully M, Wakefield M, White V, Crawford D. The effects of television advertisement for junk food versus nutritious food on children's food attitudes and preferences. Soc Sci Med 2007;65:1311-23.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.Rosenkranz RR, Dzewaltowski DA. Model of the home food environment pertaining to childhood obesity. Nutr Rev 2008;66:123-40.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.Moreno LA, Rodriguez G. Dietary risk factors for the development of childhood obesity. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2007;10:336-41.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.Eisenmann JC, Bartee RT, Smith DT, Welk GJ, Fu Q. Combined influence of physical activity and television viewing on the risk of overweight in US youth. Int J Obes (Lond) 2008;32:613-8.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.Anderson PM, Butcher KF. Childhood obesity: Trends and potential causes. Future Child 2006;16:19-45.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.Golan M. Parents as agents of change in childhood obesity: From research to practice. Int J Pediatr Obes 2006;1:66-76.  Back to cited text no. 30
    
31.Gorman N, Lackney JA, Rollings K, Huang TT. Designer schools: The role of school space and architecture in obesity prevention. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2007;15:2521-30.  Back to cited text no. 31
    
32.Figlewicz DP, MacDonald Naleid A, Sipols AJ. Modulation of food rewards by adiposity signals. Physiol Behav 2007;91:473-8.  Back to cited text no. 32
    
33.Newby PK. Are dietary intakes and eating behaviors related to childhood obesity: A comprehensive review of the evidence. J Law Med Ethics 2007;35:35-60.  Back to cited text no. 33
    
34.James J, Kerr D. Prevention of childhood obesity by reducing soft drinks. Int J Obes (Lond) 2005;29 Suppl 2:S54-7.  Back to cited text no. 34
    
35.Neilsen SJ, Popkin BM. Patterns and trends in food portions and sizes, 1977-1998. JAMA 2003;289:450-3.  Back to cited text no. 35
    
36.Fisher JO, Kral TV. Super-size me: Portion size effects on young children's eating. Physiol Behav 2008;94:39-47.  Back to cited text no. 36
    
37.Siwik VP, Senf JH. Food carvings, ethnicity and other factors related to eating out. J Am Coll Nutr 2006;25:382-8.  Back to cited text no. 37
    
38.Colles SL, Dixon JB, O'Brien PE. Night eating syndrome and nocturnal snacking: Association with obesity, binge eating and psychological distress. Int J Obes (Lond) 2007;31:1722-30.  Back to cited text no. 38
    
39.Muris P, Meesters C, van de Blom W, Mayer B. Biological, psychological and sociocultural correlates of body change strategies and eating problems in adolescent boys and girls. Eat Behav 2005;6:11-22.  Back to cited text no. 39
    
40.McClure AC, Tanski SE, Kingsbury J, Gerrard M, Sargent JD. Characteristics associated with low self esteem in US adolescents. Acad Pediatr 2010;10:238-44.e2.   Back to cited text no. 40
    
41.Storch EA, Milsom VA, DeBraganza N, Lewin AB, Geffken GR, Silverstein JH. Peer victimization, psychosocial adjustment and physical activity in overweight and at-risk- for-overweight youth. J Pediatr Psychol 2007;32:80-9.  Back to cited text no. 41
    
42.Griffiths LJ, Wolke D, Page AS, Harwood JP; ALSPAC Study Team. Obesity and bullying: Different effects for boys and girls. Arch Dis Child 2006;91:121-5.  Back to cited text no. 42
    
43.Agras WS, Berkowitz RI, Hammer LD, Kraemer HC. Relationships between eating behaviors of parents and their 18 month old children: A laboratory study. Int J Eat Disord 1988;7:461-8.  Back to cited text no. 43
    
44.Golan M, Weizman A, Apter A, Fainaru M. Parents as the exclusive agents of change in the treatment of childhood obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67:1130-5.  Back to cited text no. 44
    
45.Dorsey KB, Wells C, Krumholz HM, Concato J. Diagnosis, evaluation and treatment of childhood obesity in pediatric practice. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2005;159:632-8.  Back to cited text no. 45
    
46.Zeller MH, Reiter-Purtill J, Modi AC, Gutzwiller J, Vannatta K, Davies WH. Controlled study of critical parental and family factors in the obesigenic environment. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2007;15:126-36.  Back to cited text no. 46
    
47.Agras WS, Mascola AJ. Risk factors for childhood overweight. Curr Opin Pediatr 2005;17:648-52.  Back to cited text no. 47
    
48.Zipper E, Vila G, Dabbas M, Bertrand C, Mouren-Siméoni MC, Robert JJ, et al. Obesity in children and adolescents, mental disorders and familial psychopathology. Presse Med 2001;30:1489-95.  Back to cited text no. 48
    
49.Wood JJ. Parental intrusiveness and children's separation anxiety in a clinical sample. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev 2006;37:73-87.  Back to cited text no. 49
    
50.Goodman E, Whitaker RC. A prospective study of the role of depression in the development and persistence of adolescent obesity. Pediatrics 2002;110:497-504.  Back to cited text no. 50
    
51.Erermis S, Cetin N, Tamar M, Bukusoglu N, Akdeniz F, Goksen D. Is obesity a risk factor for psychopathology among adolescents? Pediatr Int 2004;46:296-301.  Back to cited text no. 51
    
52.Kapornai K, Vetro A. Depression in children. Curr Opin Psychiatry 2008;21:1-7.  Back to cited text no. 52
    
53.Keery H, Boutelle K, van den Berg P, Thompson J. The impact of appearance-related teasing by family members. J Adolesc Health 2005;37:120-7.  Back to cited text no. 53
    
54.Vgontzas AN, Bixler EO, Chrousos GP. Obesity-related sleepiness and fatigue: The role of the stress system and cytokines. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2006;1083:329-44.  Back to cited text no. 54
    
55.Mietus-Snyder ML, Lustig RH. Childhood obesity: Adrift in the "limbic triangle". Annu Rev Med 2008;59:147-62.  Back to cited text no. 55
    
56.Li Y, Dai Q, Jackson JC, Zhnag J. Overweight is associated with decreased cognitive functioning among school age children and adolescents. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008;16:1809-15.  Back to cited text no. 56
    
57.Gustafson D. Adiposity indices and dementia. Lancet Neurol 2006;5:713-20.  Back to cited text no. 57
    
58.Beuther DA, Weiss ST, Sutherland ER. Obesity and asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006;174:112-9.  Back to cited text no. 58
    
59.Taheri S, Lin L, Austin D, Young T, Mignot E. Short sleep duration is associated with reduced leptin, elevated ghrelin and increased body mass index. PLOS Med 2004;1:e62.  Back to cited text no. 59
    
60.Gozal D, Kheirandish-Gozal L. The obesity epidemic and disordered sleep during childhood and adolescence. Adolesc Med State Art Rev 2010;21:480-90, viii-ix.   Back to cited text no. 60
    
61.Harder T, Bergmann R, Kallischnigg G, Plagemann A. Duration of breastfeeding and risk of overweight: A meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol 2005;162:397-403.  Back to cited text no. 61
    
62.Ahmed ML, Ong KK, Dunger DB. Childhood obesity and the timing of puberty. Trends Endocrinol Metab 2009;20:237-42.  Back to cited text no. 62
    
63.Farooqi S. Genetic and hereditary aspects of childhood obesity. Best Pract Res Clin Endo Metab 2005;19:359-74.  Back to cited text no. 63
    
64.Bruch H, Touraine G. Obesity in childhood. Psychosom Med 1940;2:141-206.   Back to cited text no. 64
    
65.Averett S, Korenman S. Black-white differences in social and economic consequences of obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1999;23:166-73.   Back to cited text no. 65
    
66.Neumark-Sztainer D, Harris T, Story M. Beliefs and attitudes about obesity among teachers and school health care providers working with adolescents. J Nutr Educ 1999;31:3-9.  Back to cited text no. 66
    
67.Phillips RG, Hill AJ. Fat, plain, but not friendless: Self-esteem and peer acceptance of obese pre-adolescent girls. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1998;22:287-93.  Back to cited text no. 67
    
68.Maloney AE. Pediatric obesity: A review for the child psychiatrist. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2010;19:353-70.  Back to cited text no. 68
    
69.Libbey HP, Story MT, Neumark-Sztainer DR, Boutelle KN. Teasing, disordered eating behaviors, and psychological morbidities among overweight adolescents. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2008;16 Suppl 2:S24-9.  Back to cited text no. 69
    
70.Eisenberg ME, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M. Associations of weight-based teasing and emotional well-being among adolescents. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2003;157:733-8.  Back to cited text no. 70
    
71.Hayden-Wade HA, Stein RI, Ghaderi A, Saelens BE, Zabinski MF, Wilfley DE. Prevalence, characteristics, and correlates of teasing experiences among overweight children vs. non-overweight peers. Obes Res 2005;13:1381-92.  Back to cited text no. 71
    
72.Young-Hyman D, Tanofsky-Kraff M, Yanovski SZ, Keil M, Cohen ML, Peyrot M, et al. Psychological status and weight-related distress in overweight or at-risk-for-overweight children. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2006;14:2249-58.  Back to cited text no. 72
    
73.Taner Y, Törel-Ergür A, Bahçivan G, Gürdag M. Psychopathology and its effect on treatment compliance in pediatric obesity patients. Turk J Pediatr 2009;51:466-71.  Back to cited text no. 73
    
74.Vila G, Zipper E, Dabbas M, Bertrand C, Robert JJ, Ricour C, et al. Mental disorders in obese children and adolescents. Psychosom Med 2004;66:387-94.  Back to cited text no. 74
    
75.Neumark-Sztainer D, Falkner N, Story M, Perry C, Hannan PJ, Mulert S. Weight-teasing among adolescents: Correlations with weight status and disordered eating behaviors. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002;26:123-31.  Back to cited text no. 75
    
76.Hu FB. Sedentary lifestyle and risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Lipids 2003;38:103-8.  Back to cited text no. 76
    
77.Brewis AA. Obesity: Cultural and bio-cultural perspectives. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press; 2010.  Back to cited text no. 77
    
78.Swinburn BA, Egger G, Raza F. Dissecting obseogenic environments: The development and application of a framework for identifying and prioritizing environmental interventions for obesity. Prev Med 1999;29:563-70.   Back to cited text no. 78
    
79.Park K. Park's textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine. 18 th ed. New Delhi: Banarsidas Bhanot Publishers; 2005. p. 316-9.  Back to cited text no. 79
    
80.Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Resnick MD, Blum RW. Psychosocial concerns and weight control behaviors among overweight and nonoverweight Native American adolescents. J Am Diet Assoc 1997;97:598-604.  Back to cited text no. 80
    
81.Eisenberg M, Neumark-Sztainer D. Peer harassment and disordered eating. Int J Adolesc Med Health 2008;20:155-64.  Back to cited text no. 81
    
82.Eisenberg ME, Neumark-Sztainer D, Haines J, Wall M. Weight-teasing and emotional well-being in adolescents: Longitudinal findings from project EAT. J Adolesc Health 2006;38:675-83.  Back to cited text no. 82
    
83.Crawford PB, Story M, Wang MC, Ritchie LD, Sabry ZI. Ethnic issues in the epidemiology of childhood obesity. Pediatr Clin North Am 2001;48:855-78.  Back to cited text no. 83
    
84.Fennig S, Fennig S. Can we treat morbid obese children in a behavioral inpatient programme? Pediatr Endocrinol Rev 2006;3 Suppl 4:590-6.  Back to cited text no. 84
    
85.Resnicow K, Davies R, Rollnick S. Motivational interviewing for pediatric obesity: Conceptual issues and evidence review. J Am Diet Assoc 2006;106:2024-33.  Back to cited text no. 85
    
86.Correll CU, Carlson HE. Endocrine and metabolic adverse effects of psychotropic medications in children and adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2006;45:771-91.  Back to cited text no. 86
    
87.Shin L, Bregman H, Breeze JL, Noyes N, Frazier JA. Metformin for weight control in pediatric patients on antipsychotic medication. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol 2009;19:275-9.  Back to cited text no. 87
    
88.Padwal R, Majumdar S. Drug treatments for obesity: Orlistat, sibutramine and rimonabant. Lancet 2007;369:71-7.  Back to cited text no. 88
    
89.Graham DJ, Green L. Further cases of valvular heart disease associated with fenfluramine-phenteramine. N Engl J Med 1997;337:635.  Back to cited text no. 89
    
90.Treadwell JR, Sun F, Scholles K. Systematic review and meta-analysis of bariatric surgery for pediatric obesity. Ann Surg 2008;248:763-76.  Back to cited text no. 90
    
91.Norris L. Psychiatric issues in bariatric surgery. Psychiatr Clin North Am 2007;30:717-38.  Back to cited text no. 91
    
92.Sharma M. School-based interventions for childhood and adolescent obesity. Obes Rev 2006;7:261-9.  Back to cited text no. 92
    
93.Hebebrand J, Herpertz-Dahlmann B. Psychological and psychiatric aspects of pediatric obesity. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2009;18:49-65.  Back to cited text no. 93
    
94.Ashton D. Food advertising and childhood obesity. J R Soc Med 2004;97:51-2.  Back to cited text no. 94
    



This article has been cited by
1 Asociación entre obesidad y depresión infantil en población escolar de una unidad de medicina familiar en Morelia, Michoacán
Janett González-Toche,Anel Gómez-García,Carlos Gómez-Alonso,Martha Angélica Álvarez-Paredes,Cleto Álvarez-Aguilar
Atención Familiar. 2017; 24(1): 8
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Addressing childhood obesity among children in care: The missing link to promoting physical well-being outcomes
Kellie O’Dare Wilson,Diane L. Scott
Journal of Family Social Work. 2016; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Prebiotics as a modulator of gut microbiota in paediatric obesity
A.?C. Nicolucci,R.?A. Reimer
Pediatric Obesity. 2016;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Rural-Urban Differences in Perceptions of Child Overweight Among Children and Adolescents, Their Guardians and Health Care Professionals in the United States
Yelena N. Tarasenko,Chen Chen,K. Bryant Smalley,Jacob Warren
The Journal of Rural Health. 2016; 32(1): 63
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Serum C-reactive protein levels and body mass index in children and adolescents with CHD
Maíra Ribas Goulart,Daniela Schneid Schuh,David W. Moraes,Sandra Mari Barbiero,Lucia Campos Pellanda
Cardiology in the Young. 2016; : 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Association of some psychosocial factors with anthropometric measures in nationally representative sample of Iranian adolescents: the CASPIAN-III study
Fereshteh Baygi,Roya Kelishadi,Mostafa Qorbani,Fatemeh Mohammadi,Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh,Gelayol Ardalan,Morteza Mansourian,Seyed Masoud Arzaghi,Hamid Asayesh,Ramin Heshmat
Journal of Diabetes & Metabolic Disorders. 2015; 15(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Childhood obesity and its physical and psychological co-morbidities: a systematic review of Australian children and adolescents
Ross H. Sanders,Ahreum Han,Julien S. Baker,Stephen Cobley
European Journal of Pediatrics. 2015;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
  
 
  Search
 
  
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
    Childhood Obesit...
    Method of Conduc...
    Developmental Ps...
    Developmental Fa...
    Developmental Fa...
    Developmental Ps...
    Long-Term Develo...
    The Impact of Ur...
    Management of De...
    References

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed5739    
    Printed154    
    Emailed3    
    PDF Downloaded90    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 7    

Recommend this journal