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   2009| July-December  | Volume 18 | Issue 2  
    Online since June 5, 2010

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Hypothesis testing, type I and type II errors
Amitav Banerjee, UB Chitnis, SL Jadhav, JS Bhawalkar, S Chaudhury
July-December 2009, 18(2):127-131
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.62274  PMID:21180491
Hypothesis testing is an important activity of empirical research and evidence-based medicine. A well worked up hypothesis is half the answer to the research question. For this, both knowledge of the subject derived from extensive review of the literature and working knowledge of basic statistical concepts are desirable. The present paper discusses the methods of working up a good hypothesis and statistical concepts of hypothesis testing.
  18,922 278 13
Hallucinations: Etiology and clinical implications
Santosh Kumar, Subhash Soren, Suprakash Chaudhury
July-December 2009, 18(2):119-126
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.62273  PMID:21180490
The literature on hallucinations is reviewed, including history; theoretical background from physiological, biochemical and psychological points of view; classification; causation; presentation in different psychiatric and neurological disorders and in normal persons. The available evidence suggests that hallucinations result from a failure of the metacognitive skills involved in discriminating between self-generated and external sources of information. Management of hallucinations is briefly discussed.
  8,472 220 3
Urbanization and mental health
Kalpana Srivastava
July-December 2009, 18(2):75-76
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.64028  PMID:21180479
  6,899 282 5
Students' perception about mental illness
RK Mahto, PK Verma, AN Verma, AR Singh, S Chaudhury, K Shantna
July-December 2009, 18(2):92-96
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.62267  PMID:21180484
Background: In developing countries like India, there are evidences that stigma associated with mental illness is increasing. As in parts of the developing world, with advancement of urbanization and rapid industrialization, people tend to react in a very peculiar and biased way when they confront a mentally ill person. Materials and Methods: The present study aimed to find out students' opinion about mental illness. A total of 100 students (50 male and 50 female) from Ranchi University were purposively recruited for the study, and the 51-item Opinion about Mental Illness (OMI) Scale was administered. Results: Majority of the students were from Hindu families, of whom 42 (84%) were males and 38 (68%) were females. With regard to OMI scale, the item, viz., 'The law should allow a woman to divorce her husband as soon as he has been confined in mental hospital with a severe mental illness', both male (46%) and female (56%) students were neutral (significant at 0.014, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Overall no significant level of difference emerged between male and female students with regard to opinion about mental illness.
  6,770 189 2
Prevalence of obsessive compulsive symptoms among patients with schizophrenia
Smita Hemrom, Pushpa , Divya Prasad, Masroor Jahan, Amool R Singh, DK Kenswar
July-December 2009, 18(2):77-80
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.62263  PMID:21180480
Background: Obsessive compulsive symptoms in schizophrenia are well recognized but are a less-researched entity. These symptoms have important implications for management and prognosis. Aim: To find out the prevalence of obsessive compulsive symptoms among patients with schizophrenia. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia diagnosed according to DCR of ICD-10 criteria were selected for the study. Padua inventory and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale were applied to find out the prevalence and nature of obsessive compulsive symptoms . Results: It was found that 10% of schizophrenic patients had obsessive compulsive symptoms. Conclusion: Obsessive compulsive symptoms are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia. The presence of comorbidity should be explored for adequate management.
  4,945 206 2
Innovative work behavior of managers: Implications regarding stressful challenges of modernized public- and private-sector organizations
Sudeshna Basu Mukherjee, Anjali Ray
July-December 2009, 18(2):101-107
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.62269  PMID:21180486
Background: The present study was firstly aimed to find out the nature of stressful life events arising out of the innovative challenges in modernized organizations; and secondly, it tried to identify the relationship between innovative work behavior of managers and the levels of stress arising out of stressful events in modernized organizations (public and private) in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: Data was collected from a sample of 200 managers, by using 3 tools (General Information Schedule, Life Event Inventory and Innovative Work Behavior Scale) through a face-to-face interview. Responses were subjected to both quantitative and qualitative analyses. The data was statistically treated for 't' and ANOVA. Results: Data highlighted the fact that the qualitative profile of stressful events in the lives of managers expressed specificity in terms of their organizational type (public- and private-sector modernized organizations), and levels of stress from stressful life events were significantly higher among the modernized private-sector managers than those among public-sector managers. The prevalence of innovative work behavior was moderately higher among managers of private-sector modernized organizations than their counterparts in public-sector organizations. The trends of innovative work behavior of the managers indicated much variability due to interaction of their level of perceived stressful challenges for innovation and the global forces of change that have unleashed dynamic, systematic and higher expectation level from them.
  4,942 118 1
Subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients
Surekha Kumari, AR Singh, AN Verma, PK Verma, S Chaudhury
July-December 2009, 18(2):97-100
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.62268  PMID:21180485
Background : There is limited information from India on subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. The aim of the present study was to assess and compare patterns of subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted at the OPD level, and follow-up was done at the Ranchi Institute of Neuropsychiatry and Sciences (RINPAS) during the period May 2008 to November 2008. Tools utilized were sociodemographic data sheet, Family Burden Interview Schedule developed by Pai and R. L. Kapur (1981). The sample comprised of 50 samples of spouses (25 male and 25 female spouses of schizophrenia patients). Results: The findings suggest that both the groups, viz., male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients, showed moderate level of subjective burden, i.e., 13 (52%) and 15 (60%) male and female spouses, respectively, which was statistically found to be insignificant. Conclusion : No significant difference was found between male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients with regard to the level of subjective burden.
  4,371 156 2
Impact of age and level of experience on occupational stress experienced by non-gazetted officers of the central reserve police force
C Balakrishnamurthy, Swetha Shankar
July-December 2009, 18(2):81-83
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.62264  PMID:21180481
Background: The study explores the effect of demographic variables such as age and level of experience on the level of stress experienced by non-gazette officers of the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF). Materials and Methods: A purposive sample of 163 CRPF personnel was chosen. The Police Stress Inventory developed for use among CRPF personnel was administered. Various statistical parameters such as mean, standard deviation, standard error, mean difference and single-factor ANOVA were used to analyze the data. Conclusion: The study strongly indicates the relationship between stress and demographic variables such as age and level of experience.
  4,027 191 1
Intracranial (structural) changes in obsessive- compulsive disorder: A computerized tomography scan study
Deepak Kumar Giri, Indira Sharma
July-December 2009, 18(2):88-91
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.62266  PMID:21180483
Objective: To assess intracranial structural changes in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with CT scan. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients of OCD between 21 and 40 years of age and fulfilling various inclusion and exclusion criteria were compared with control group. CT scans of all the patients and controls were taken and compared with regard to ventricular size, Evan's ratio and ventricular brain ratio (VBR). Results: Patients of OCD were found to have greater cortical atrophy and scored significantly higher in frontal and parietal area. Only 4 patients had enlarged ventricles, and there were none with a smaller ventricle. Mean Evan's ratio of patients was lower than that of the control group but the difference was statistically nonsignificant. The mean VBR of patients was lower than that of the control group and the difference was highly significant. Conclusions: The evidence of neuro-radiological abnormalities in patients with OCD suggests that these disorders should not be considered merely functional in the traditional sense.
  3,850 74 -
Model of organizational stress for use within an occupational health education/promotion or well-being of members of the organization
Subhash S Sharma
July-December 2009, 18(2):135-136
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.62276  PMID:21180493
This paper introduces a simple model of organizational stress which can be used to educate or inform employees, personnel and health professionals about the relationship between potential work-related stress hazards, individual and organizational symptoms of stress, negative outcomes and financial costs. The components of the model relate directly to a recent Health and Safety Executive publication (Cox, 1993) which focuses on improving and maintaining employee health and well-being.
  3,586 115 -
Possible psychosocial strategies for controlling violence against women
Sapna Kumari, Richa Priyamvada, S Chaudhury, AR Singh, AN Verma, J Prakash
July-December 2009, 18(2):132-134
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.62275  PMID:21180492
Women, the fair sex, are considered to be the weaker sex and one of the most powerless and marginalized sections of our society. Violence against women and girls continues to be a global epidemic. It is present in every country, cutting across boundaries of culture, class, education, income, ethnicity and age. A growing body of research studies indicates that 20% to 50% (varying from country to country) of women have experienced domestic violence. A multilayered strategy that addresses the structural causes of violence against women is needed. Strategies and interventions attempting to address violence against women should be guided by 5 underlying principles: Prevention, protection, early intervention, rebuilding the lives of victims/survivors and accountability. When planning interventions, there are a variety of stakeholders who should be borne in mind. Key areas for intervention include encouraging women empowerment; advocacy and awareness raising; education for building a culture of nonviolence; encouraging active participation of women in political system; resource development; direct service provision to victims, survivors and perpetrators; networking and community mobilization; direct intervention to help victims/survivors rebuild their lives; legal reform; monitoring interventions and measures; early identification of 'at risk' families, communities, groups and individuals; and data collection and analysis.
  3,513 80 -
Neurocognitive psychotherapy for adult attention deficit hyperactive disorder
Susmita Halder, Akash Kumar Mahato
July-December 2009, 18(2):113-116
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.62271  PMID:21180488
Previously thought as a childhood disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is reported to be spreading at an increasing rate and affecting 4% to 5% of the adult population. It is characterized by persistent problems of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. We present the case of an adult ADHD patient intervened with neurocognitive psychotherapy.
  3,407 89 -
Comorbid psychiatric disorders in substance dependence patients: A control study
K Shantna, S Chaudhury, AN Verma, AR Singh
July-December 2009, 18(2):84-87
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.62265  PMID:21180482
Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the comorbidity of mental disorders among a random sample of substance dependence patients from a psychiatric inpatients department and the general population. Materials and Methods: Comprehensive data was collected from inpatients with substance abuse/dependence and comorbidity of mental disorders at the Ranchi Institute of Neuropsychiatry and Allied Sciences (RINPAS) and from normal controls from the general population during the period January 2007 to May 2007. Results: The results show that the most prevalent comorbid disorders in substance dependence patients and substance abusers were depressive disorders. Conclusions: The majority of substance dependence patients suffered from comorbid mental disorders. Comorbidity needs to be taken into account when analyzing the relationship between substance dependence and depression and in planning treatment strategies for comorbid conditions.
  3,307 124 2
Partial Kluver-Bucy syndrome as a delayed manifestation of head injury
PS Bhat, PK Pardal, RC Das
July-December 2009, 18(2):117-118
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.62272  PMID:21180489
After traumatic brain injury (TBI), the most disabling problems are generally related to neuropsychiatric sequelae, including personality change and cognitive impairment, rather than neurophysical sequelae. Kluver-Bucy syndrome (KBS) is a rare neurobehavioral condition, first described in 1937 as an experimental neurobehavioral syndrome in monkeys with bitemporal brain lesions. The syndrome in man was subsequently observed to be transient or permanent in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders and after traumatic, nontraumatic and infectious brain injury. However, partial KBS may occur in the absence of the classic bilateral temporal lesion, though rare. Pharmacological treatment of post-TBI neuropsychiatric sequelae consists of symptomatic, functional and hypothetical approaches. Specific pharmacological treatment consists of antipsychotics, anti-kindling anticonvulsants or a combination thereof. A case of partial KBS presenting as delayed manifestation of traumatic brain injury that improved with carbamazapine and antipsychotics is presented.
  3,173 68 1
Occupational stress and mental health of cardiac and noncardiac patients
S Subramanian, DV Nithyanandan
July-December 2009, 18(2):108-112
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.62270  PMID:21180487
Background: Much of the research studies have shown that occupational stress is one of the strong determinant factors of coronary heart diseases among people in general. However, exploring the extent to which the type or nature of ailments and its subsequent risk factors have an effect on the onset of mental health will help evolve suitable preventive measures. The present study attempts to explore the status of mental health and occupational stress with respect to 2 categories of patients: Those who are suffering from cardiac problems and those suffering from noncardiac health problems. Materials and Methods: Occupational Stress Questionnaire and Mental Health Questionnaire were administered to both cardiac and noncardiac patients. The cardiac group consisted of 40 patients who were being treated at the cardiology department of a reputed hospital, and noncardiac group (40 patients) consisted of outpatients of the same hospital being treated for noncardiac problems like knee pain, headache, etc. Responses to these self-reported questionnaires were subjected to statistical analysis to find out the difference between cardiac and noncardiac groups. Results: The results revealed that cardiac patients tend to have lower levels of mental health than noncardiac patients. Similarly, cardiac patients were reported to have higher levels of stress due to role ambiguity, powerlessness, intrinsic impoverishment and unprofitability. Conclusions: The implications of the study were implementation of interventions to improve the internal strength of cardiac patients to overcome various aspects of occupational stress.
  3,095 116 -
Hyponatremia-induced psychosis in an industrial setting
Rakesh Kumar Singh, Suprakash Chaudhury
July-December 2009, 18(2):137-138
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.62277  PMID:21180494
  2,942 67 -