Home | About IPJ | Editorial board | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Instructions | Contact us |   Login 
Industrial Psychiatry Journal
Search Articles   
    
Advanced search   
 


 
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2013  |  Volume : 22  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 37-40  Table of Contents     

Depression during pregnancy: Prevalence and obstetric risk factors among pregnant women attending a tertiary care hospital in Navi Mumbai


1 Department of Psychiatry, MGM Medical College and Hospital, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Pharmacology, MGM Medical College and Hospital, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
3 MGM Medical College and Hospital, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Date of Web Publication24-Dec-2013

Correspondence Address:
Shaunak Ajinkya
Bandra Shelter Apartments, Gr. Floor, 145, Manuel Gonsalves Road, Bandra (West), Mumbai - 400 050, Maharashtra
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0972-6748.123615

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 

Context: Depression affects about 20% of women during their lifetime, with pregnancy being a period of high vulnerability. Prevalence of depression during pregnancy ranges from 4% to 20%. Several risk factors predispose to depression during pregnancy including obstetric factors. Depression during pregnancy is not only the strongest risk factor for post-natal depression but also leads to adverse obstetric outcomes. Aims: To study the prevalence of depression during pregnancy and its associated obstetric risk factors among pregnant women attending routine antenatal checkup. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional observational survey done at the outpatient department (OPD) of the department of obstetrics of a tertiary care hospital in Navi Mumbai. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty-five pregnant women were randomly administered the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) for detecting depression. Additional socio-demographic and obstetric history was recorded and analyzed. Results: Prevalence of depression during pregnancy was found to be 9.18% based upon BDI, and it was significantly associated with several obstetric risk factors like gravidity (P = 0.0092), unplanned pregnancy (P = 0.001), history of abortions (P = 0.0001), and a history of obstetric complications, both present (P = 0.0001) and past (P = 0.0001). Conclusions: Depression during pregnancy is prevalent among pregnant women in Navi-Mumbai, and several obstetric risk factors were associated to depression during pregnancy. Future research in this area is needed, which will clearly elucidate the potential long-term impact of depression during pregnancy and associated obstetric risk factors so as to help health professionals identify vulnerable groups for early detection, diagnosis, and providing effective interventions for depression during pregnancy.

Keywords: Antenatal depression, beck depression inventory, depression during pregnancy, obstetric factors, prevalence


How to cite this article:
Ajinkya S, Jadhav PR, Srivastava NN. Depression during pregnancy: Prevalence and obstetric risk factors among pregnant women attending a tertiary care hospital in Navi Mumbai. Ind Psychiatry J 2013;22:37-40

How to cite this URL:
Ajinkya S, Jadhav PR, Srivastava NN. Depression during pregnancy: Prevalence and obstetric risk factors among pregnant women attending a tertiary care hospital in Navi Mumbai. Ind Psychiatry J [serial online] 2013 [cited 2022 Dec 3];22:37-40. Available from: https://www.industrialpsychiatry.org/text.asp?2013/22/1/37/123615

Pregnancy and its associated complications have been an issue of public health concern throughout the world. Pregnancy and the transition to parenthood involves major psychological and social changes in the mother, which have been linked to symptoms of anxiety and depression. [1]

Depression affects about 20% of women during their lifetime, with pregnancy being a period of high vulnerability. [2] Depression during pregnancy is a matter of public health importance due to 3 prime reasons: Firstly, rate of depression during pregnancy is high during antenatal period. [1],[3] Secondly, it is the strongest risk factor for post-natal depression. [4],[5],[6] Thirdly, it leads to adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. [7] Thus, makes depression during pregnancy a matter of great importance.

Depression is also the most prevalent psychiatric disorder during pregnancy, and several studies have documented prevalence range from 4% to 25%. [2],[3],[4],[5],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13] with point prevalence of 15.5% in early and mid pregnancy, 11.1% in 3 rd trimester, and 8.7% in post-partum period. [1] Other studies using a variety of depression assessment tools have reported antenatal depression prevalence of 9% to 28% for predominantly middle class samples [14],[15] and 25% to 50% [14],[15],[16] for low income populations.

Several risk factors predispose to depression during pregnancy. Some of them are poor antenatal care, poor nutrition, stressful life events like economic deprivation, gender-based violence and polygamy, previous history of psychiatric disorders, previous puerperal complications, events during pregnancy like previous abortions, and modes of previous delivery like past instrumental or operative delivery. Other factors include age, marital status, gravidity, whether pregnancy was planned or not, previous history of stillbirth, previous history of prolonged labor, and level of social support. [2],[3],[4],[8],[17],[18],[19],[20] Thus, assessment of depression during pregnancy is essential for detecting pregnant women in need of intervention in order to safeguard the well-being of mother and baby.

Despite being an important public health issue, most Indian studies of maternal depression have focused on post-natal depression, and there is paucity of data on depression during pregnancy. [21],[22] Hence, this study was conducted with an aim to find the prevalence of depression during pregnancy and its association with certain obstetric risk factors in pregnant women attending tertiary care hospital in Navi Mumbai.


   Materials and Methods Top


This was an open-label, cross-sectional, observational type of study done in the outpatient department (OPD) of the department of obstetrics of a tertiary care hospital in Navi-Mumbai and conducted for the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) Short Term Research Studentship (STS-2011) Program. Permission from ethics committee was obtained. The sample size was 185 (based upon prevalence of 14%, 95% confidence interval with 5% marginal error). The study duration was 2 months (June-August 2011), in which pregnant women of 18 years and above attending routine antenatal checkup was randomly selected for participation in this study. After obtaining informed consent, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was administered to detect symptoms of depression and their socio-demographic data along with the obstetric history was recorded. We excluded women in labor or in post-natal period, women consuming any type of psychotropic medications, and repeat attendees.

The Beck Depression Inventory Scale (BDI) [23],[24] is the most widely used screening instrument for detecting symptoms of depression. It is a valid scale and tested to detect symptoms and severity of depression. It is a 21-item measure designed to document a variety of depressive symptoms the individual experienced over the preceding week. Responses to the 21 items are made on a 4-point scale, ranging from 0 to 3 (total scores can range from 0 to 63). [24]

BDI cut-off scores used for detecting depression in several research literatures have ranged from 8.5 to 16.5. [25] A cut score of either 17 or 18 provide the best balance between sensitivity and specificity. [24],[26],[27],[28],[29] Therefore, we used BDI cut-off score of 17 or more to detect symptoms of depression in our study.

The study data was analyzed on the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version-20 software with 'P' value less than 0.05 taken to be statistically significant. Pearson's Chi-Square test and Fisher's exact test were used for categorical data to test for the association and probability. Data was expressed in terms of mean and percentages.


   Results Top


The total number of pregnant women analyzed in this study was 185. The mean age of the sample was 27.30 (±3.16) years. The prevalence of depression during pregnancy was found to be 9.18% (17) using BDI cut-off value of 17 or more in this study. The pregnant women were dichotomized into those having depression (n = 17) and those who were non-depressed (n = 168) based upon the BDI cut-off value of 17. [Table 1] shows the comparisons and analysis of depressed and non-depressed pregnant women in our sample and their correlations with various obstetric risk factors. Depression during pregnancy was significantly associated with multigravidas (P = 0.0092), unplanned pregnancy (P = 0.0019), obstetric complications during current pregnancy (P < 0.0001), previous history of obstetric complications (P < 0.0001), and a previous history of abortions (P < 0.0001).
Table 1: Analysis of comparison of depressed and non‑depressed pregnant women and their association with various obstetric variables

Click here to view



   Discussion Top


In this study, an attempt has been made to examine the prevalence of depression during pregnancy (using the Beck's Depression Inventory) and its association with certain obstetric risk factors.

The prevalence of depression during pregnancy in our study was found to be 9.18% (using the BDI), which was on the lower side of the 5% to 25% prevalence of antenatal depressive symptoms reported by several other studies with different rating scales. [2],[3],[4],[5],[8],[9],[10],[11],[12],[13] We were not able to compare our prevalence finding with other Indian studies since there is a paucity of Indian data and majority of the work has been focused on post-natal depression. The lower side prevalence in our population probably reflects both the specificity of the Beck Depression Inventory at a cut-off score of 17 and more and the comparatively high socio-economic position of our sample. Another reason for getting a low prevalence could be that the women in our sample population had a better support group in form of family and friends and hence may have been able to handle the stress of pregnancy better.

There are several risk factors that predispose to depression during pregnancy. [18],[20],[28],[30] In our study, we mainly focused on obstetric risk factors and found that multigravidas, unplanned pregnancy, and pregnant women with current obstetric complications, history of previous abortions, and a past history of obstetric complications were significantly associated with depression during pregnancy. This was similar to the findings from various other studies. [2],[3],[8],[17],[19]

We found that previous history of abortions and history of obstetric complications in the past was significantly associated with depression during pregnancy. We also found that unplanned pregnancy was significantly associated with depression during pregnancy, which was similar to the studies done by Rich-Edwards et al. [2] and Patel et al. [22] who had documented that unplanned pregnancy had two-fold risk of antenatal depression. The most likely reasons could be that these are severely stressful events during pregnancy, which increase the vulnerability for depressive episodes. [1],[17],[20]

We also found higher prevalence of depression during pregnancy in multigravidas as compared to primigravidas. Many studies have shown that multigravidity is a risk factor for pregnancy depression. [1],[31],[32] There was no significant association between mode of delivery in previous pregnancies and depression during pregnancy in our study, which was similar to study done by Adewuya et al.[8]

Our study had some limitations. Since our study was conducted as a part of ICMR- Short term studentship 2011, the study had to be completed within 2 months, so the sample size was kept moderate, the time required was not feasible to conduct a full diagnostic, psychiatric clinical interview of all the patient, and also assessment for other possible co-morbid diagnoses was not done (such as anxiety disorders or dysthymia or other psychosocial factors, which could affect antenatal psychological wellbeing). Becks Depression Inventory was used to detect the presence of depression in pregnant women; therefore, we were able to examine only for the current (preceding 2 weeks) prevalence of depression and do not know whether the onset of depression was prior to the current pregnancy. The strength of our study lies in to address the issue of depression during pregnancy coming from a field of vulnerable population not yet well studied and the several obstetric variables that were significantly associated with depression during pregnancy.

In summary, our study has shown that depression during pregnancy is prevalent among pregnant women in Navi-Mumbai and detection of depression during pregnancy is an important aspect of health assessment. Several obstetric variables were found to be significantly associated with depression during pregnancy. Future research in this area is needed with a full diagnostic, psychiatric clinical interview, which will clearly elucidate the potential short-term and long-term impact of depression during pregnancy and associated obstetric risk factors. Hence, we recommend that screening for depression should be a part of the routine during antenatal checkups so that women in need of interventions can be detected and treated early, thereby preventing adverse outcomes.

 
   References Top

1.Teixeira C, Figueiredo B, Conde A, Pacheco A, Costa R. Anxiety and depression during pregnancy in women and men. J Affect Disord 2009;119:142-8.  Back to cited text no. 1
[PUBMED]    
2.Rich-Edwards JW, Kleinman K, Abrams A, Harlow BL, McLaughlin TJ, Joffe H, et al. Sociodemographic predictors of antenatal and postpartum depressive symptoms among women in a medical group practice. J Epidemiol Community Health 2006;60:221-7.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]    
3.Pereira PK, Lovisi GM, Pilowsky DL, Lima LA, Legay LF. Depression during pregnancy: Prevalence and risk factors among women attending a public health clinic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Cad Saude Publica 2009;25:2725-36.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]    
4.Wissart J, Parshad O, Kulkarni S. Prevalence of pre- and postpartum depression in Jamaican women. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2005;5:15.  Back to cited text no. 4
[PUBMED]    
5.Heron J, O'Connor TG, Evans J, Golding J, Glover V; ALSPAC Study Team. The course of anxiety and depression through pregnancy and the postpartum in a community sample. J Affect Disord 2004;80:65-73.  Back to cited text no. 5
[PUBMED]    
6.Johanson R, Chapman G, Murray D, Johnson I, Cox J. The North Staffordshire maternity hospital prospective study of pregnancy-associated depression. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 2000;21:93-7.  Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]    
7.Bansil P, Kuklina EV, Meikle SF, Posner SF, Kourtis AP, Ellington SR, et al. Maternal and fetal outcomes among women with depression. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2010;19:329-34.  Back to cited text no. 7
[PUBMED]    
8.Adewuya AO, Ola BA, Aloba OO, Dada AO, Fasoto OO. Prevalence and correlates of depression in late pregnancy among Nigerian women. Depress Anxiety 2007;24:15-21.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Faisal-Cury A, Rossi Menezes P. Prevalence of anxiety and depression during pregnancy in a private setting sample. Arch Womens Ment Health 2007;10:25-32.  Back to cited text no. 9
[PUBMED]    
10.Ryan D, Milis L, Misri N. Depression during pregnancy. Can Fam Physician 2005;51:1087-93.  Back to cited text no. 10
[PUBMED]    
11.Lee DT, Chan SS, Sahota DS, Yip AS, Tsui M, Chung TK. A prevalence study of antenatal depression among Chinese women. J Affect Disord 2004;82:93-9.  Back to cited text no. 11
[PUBMED]    
12.Evans J, Heron J, Francomb H, Oke S, Golding J. Cohort study of depressed mood during pregnancy and after childbirth. BMJ 2001;323:257-60.  Back to cited text no. 12
[PUBMED]    
13.Joseffson A, Berg G, Nordin C, Sydsjö G. Prevalence of depressive symptoms in late pregnancy and postpartum. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2001;80:251-5.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Hobfoll SE, Ritter C, Lavin J, Hulsizer MR, Cameron RP. Depression prevalence and incidence among inner-city pregnant and postpartum women. J Consult Clin Psychol 1995;63:445-53.  Back to cited text no. 14
[PUBMED]    
15.Séguin L, Potvin L, St-Denis M, Loiselle J. Depressive symptoms in the late postpartum among low socioeconomic status women. Birth 1999;26:157-63.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.Chung EK, McCollum KF, Elo IT, Lee HJ, Culhane JF. Maternal depressive symptoms and infant health practices among low-income women. Pediatrics 2004;113:e523-9.  Back to cited text no. 16
[PUBMED]    
17.Alder J, Fink N, Bitzer J, Hösli I, Holzgreve W. Depression and anxiety during pregnancy: A risk factor for obstetric, fetal and neonatal outcome? A critical review of the literature. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2007;20:189-209.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.King NM, Chambers J, O'Donnell K, Jayaweera SR, Williamson C, Glover VA. Anxiety, depression and saliva cortisol in women with a medical disorder during pregnancy. Arch Womens Ment Health 2010;13:339-45.  Back to cited text no. 18
[PUBMED]    
19.Benute GR, Nomura RM, Reis JS, Fraguas Junior R, Lucia MC, Zugaib M. Depression during pregnancy in women with a medical disorder: Risk factors and perinatal outcomes. Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2010;65:1127-31.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.Lancaster CA, Gold KJ, Flynn HA, Yooh H, Marcus SM, Davis MM. Risk factors for depressive symptoms during pregnancy: A systematic review. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2010;202:5-14.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.Chandran M, Tharyan P, Muliyil J, Abraham S. Post-partum depression in a cohort of women from a rural area of Tamil Nadu, India: Incidence and risk factors. Br J Psychiatry 2002;181:499-504.  Back to cited text no. 21
[PUBMED]    
22.Patel V, Rodrigues M, DeSouza N. Gender, poverty, and postnatal depression: A study of mothers in Goa, India. Am J Psychiatry 2002;159:43-7.  Back to cited text no. 22
[PUBMED]    
23.Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, Mock J, Erbaugh J. An inventory for measuring depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1961;4:561-71.  Back to cited text no. 23
[PUBMED]    
24.Beck AT, Steer RA, Brown, GK. Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory-II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation; 1996.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.Roomruangwong C, Neill Epperson C. Perinatal depression in Asian women: Prevalence, associated factors, and cultural aspects. Asian Biomedicine April Asia 2011;5:179-93.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.Leigh B, Milgrom J. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress. BMC Psychiatry 2008;8:24.  Back to cited text no. 26
[PUBMED]    
27.Arnau RC, Meagher MW, Norris MP, Bramson R. Psychometric evaluation of the Beck depression inventory-II with primary care medical patients. Health Psychol 2001;20:112-9.  Back to cited text no. 27
[PUBMED]    
28.Jesse DE, Swanson MS. Risks and resources associated with antepartum risk for depression among rural southern women. Nurs Res 2007;56:378-86.  Back to cited text no. 28
[PUBMED]    
29.Holcomb WL Jr, Stone LS, Lustman PJ, Gavard JA, Mostello DJ. Screening for depression in pregnancy: Characteristics of the Beck depression inventory. Obstet Gynecol 1996;88:1021-5.  Back to cited text no. 29
[PUBMED]    
30.Fortner RT, Pekow P, Dole N, Markenson G, Chasan-Taber L. Risk factors for prenatal depressive symptoms among Hispanic women. Matern Child Health J 2011;15:1287-95.  Back to cited text no. 30
[PUBMED]    
31.Glazier RH, Elgar FJ, Goel V, Holzapfel S. Stress, social support, and emotional distress in a community sample of pregnant women. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 2004;25:247-55.  Back to cited text no. 31
[PUBMED]    
32.DiPietro JA, Costigan KA, Sipsma HL. Continuity in self-report measures of maternal anxiety, stress, and depressive symptoms from pregnancy through two years postpartum. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 2008;29:115-24.  Back to cited text no. 32
[PUBMED]    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]

This article has been cited by
1 Depression and Anxiety Incidence During Pregnancy Between Bariatric Surgery Patients and Matched Control Subjects
Jaewhan Kim, Joshua Kelley, Lance Davidson, Nathan Richards, Ted Adams
Obesity Surgery. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Social and Obstetric Risk Factors of Antenatal Depression: A Cross-Sectional Study from South-India
Vinyas Nisarga, M Anupama, K N Madhu
Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2022; : 103063
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Antenatal depressive symptoms and behavioral outcomes in children at 78 months: A study from South India
Susan Thomas, Tinku Thomas, Anura Kurpad, Christopher P. Duggan, Krishnamachari Srinivasan
Journal of Affective Disorders Reports. 2022; : 100350
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Magnitude and determinants of psychological morbidities among pregnant women: Results from a pregnancy cohort in rural Central India
Priyadarsh Ture, Dharampal G. Dambhare, Anuj Mundra, Abhishek V. Raut, Chetna H. Maliye, Pradeep R. Deshmukh, Subodh S. Gupta, Madhukar S. Bharambe, Bishan S. Garg
Medical Journal Armed Forces India. 2022;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
5 Antenatal depression and its associated factors among women of Godawari Municipality, Lalitpur, Nepal: a cross-sectional study
Anisha Chalise, Gambhir Shrestha, Shishir Paudel, Amod Kumar Poudyal
BMJ Open. 2022; 12(11): e063513
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
6 Acceptability and feasibility of a screening protocol for antenatal depression (SPADe) in Blantyre District, Malawi
Genesis Chorwe-Sungani, Modesta Mwagomba, Ellen Chirwa, Diana Jere, Jennifer Chipps
BMC Psychiatry. 2022; 22(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
7 Social determinants of antenatal depression and anxiety among women in South Asia: A systematic review & meta-analysis
Nafisa Insan, Anthony Weke, Simon Forrest, Judith Rankin, Wondale Getinet
PLOS ONE. 2022; 17(2): e0263760
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
8 Prevalence and Associated Factors of Common Mental Disorders Among Pregnant Mothers in Rural Eastern Ethiopia
Dawit Tamiru, Tadesse Misgana, Mandaras Tariku, Dejene Tesfaye, Daniel Alemu, Adisu Birhanu Weldesenbet, Berhe Gebremichael, Merga Dheresa
Frontiers in Psychiatry. 2022; 13
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
9 Depression and quality of life among pregnant women in first and third trimesters in Abeokuta: A comparative study
Adetoun O. Soyemi, Oladipo A. Sowunmi, Sunday M. Amosu, Emmanuel O. Babalola
South African Journal of Psychiatry. 2022; 28
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
10 Impact of perinatal maternal depression on child development
Rita Roy, Madhushree Chakraborty, Kaberi Bhattacharya, Turna Roychoudhury, Suchandra Mukherjee
Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2022; 64(3): 284
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
11 Postpartum depression and health-related quality of life: a Saudi Arabian perspective
Mansour Almuqbil, Nora Kraidiye, Hatoun Alshmaimri, Amerah Ali kaabi, Atheer Almutiri, Abeer Alanazi, Ayat Hjeij, Abdulhakeem S. Alamri, Wala F. Alsanie, Majid Alhomrani, Syed Mohammed Basheeruddin Asdaq
PeerJ. 2022; 10: e14240
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
12 Risk factors for antenatal depression: A review
M Carmen Míguez, M Belén Vázquez
World Journal of Psychiatry. 2021; 11(7): 325
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
13 Prevalence of Depression during Pregnancy in Spanish Women: Trajectory and Risk Factors in Each Trimester
M. Carmen Míguez, M. Belén Vázquez
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(13): 6789
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
14 Perinatal depression – An update
Sendhil Coumary A, P Vimalanathane, Lavanya Raman, Lopamudra B John, Syed Habeebullah
Indian Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Research. 2021; 8(2): 142
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
15 Prevalence of Antenatal Depression and Its Associated Risk Factors Among Pregnant Mothers Attending Antenatal Care Service at Jinka Public Health Facilities, Southern Ethiopia
Aynalem Yetwale, Teklemariam Gultie, Dessalegn Ajema, Bezawit Afework, Semahegn Tilahun
International Journal of Childbirth. 2021; 11(2): 47
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
16 Protocol for assessing feasibility, acceptability and fidelity of screening for antenatal depression (FAFSAD) by midwives in Blantyre District, Malawi
Genesis Chorwe-Sungani, Modesta Mwagomba, Kazione Kulisewa, Ellen Chirwa, Diana Jere, Jennifer Chipps
Pilot and Feasibility Studies. 2021; 7(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
17 Pregnant women’s well-being and worry during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study
Forough Mortazavi, Maryam Mehrabadi, Roya KiaeeTabar
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2021; 21(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
18 Antenatal Depression and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care Service in Kochi Health Center, Jimma Town, Ethiopia
Yonas Tesfaye, Liyew Agenagnew, Olav Lapaire
Journal of Pregnancy. 2021; 2021: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
19 Perinatal depression in Pakistan: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Maria Atif, Mark Halaki, Camille Raynes-Greenow, Chin-Moi Chow
Birth. 2021; 48(2): 149
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
20 Association between high pre-pregnancy body mass index and antenatal depression: A study among pregnant women of upper socio-economic strata in North-West Delhi, India
Priyanka Arora, Bani Tamber Aeri
Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health. 2021; 11: 100787
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
21 Prevalence and risk factors of perinatal depression among women in rural Bihar: A community-based cross-sectional study
Vijaya Raghavan, Homam A. Khan, Uttara Seshu, Surya Prakash Rai, Jothilakshmai Durairaj, G. Aarthi, C. Sangeetha, Sujit John, R. Thara
Asian Journal of Psychiatry. 2021; 56: 102552
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
22 Prevalence and determinants of antenatal common mental disorders among women in India: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Harish Kalra, Thach Duc Tran, Lorena Romero, Prabha Chandra, Jane Fisher
Archives of Women's Mental Health. 2021; 24(1): 29
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
23 The association between social support through contacts with Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) and antenatal anxiety among women in Mysore, India: a cross-sectional study
Nivedita L. Bhushan, Karl Krupp, Poornima Jaykrishna, Kavitha Ravi, Anisa Khan, Rahul Shidhaye, Sandra Kiplagat, Vijaya Srinivas, Purnima Madhivanan
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology. 2020; 55(10): 1323
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
24 Prevalence of fear of childbirth in a sample of gravida women in Kenya
David Onchonga, Vahideh MoghaddamHosseini, Margaret Keraka, Ákos Várnagy
Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare. 2020; 24: 100510
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
25 The effect of a prenatal psychosocial education program on postnatal depression, stress, and parenting self-efficacy in women in South India - A study protocol for a randomised controlled trial
Savitha Prabhu, Linu Sara George, G. Shyamala, Tessy Treesa Jose, Anice George
Mental Health & Prevention. 2020; 20: 200194
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
26 Pregnancy Outcome Patterns of Medicaid-Eligible Women, 1999-2014: A National Prospective Longitudinal Study
James Studnicki, John W. Fisher, David C. Reardon, Christopher Craver, Tessa Longbons, Donna J. Harrison
Health Services Research and Managerial Epidemiology. 2020; 7: 2333392820
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
27 Epidemiology of antenatal depression in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Abel Fekadu Dadi, Haileab Fekadu Wolde, Adhanom Gebreegziabher Baraki, Temesgen Yihunie Akalu
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. 2020; 20(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
28 Prevalence and factors associated with depression among pregnant mothers in the West Shoa zone, Ethiopia: a community-based cross-sectional study
Takele Tiki, Kefyalew Taye, Bereket Duko
Annals of General Psychiatry. 2020; 19(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
29 Small for gestational age babies and depressive symptoms of mothers during pregnancy: Results from a birth cohort in India
Giridhara R. Babu, G.V.S. Murthy, Yogesh Reddy, R. Deepa, A. Yamuna, S. Prafulla, Anjaly Krishnan, Eunice Lobo, Mohanbabu Rathnaiah, Sanjay Kinra
Wellcome Open Research. 2020; 3: 76
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
30 Antenatal depression and its association with adverse birth outcomes in low and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Abel Fekadu Dadi, Emma R. Miller, Lillian Mwanri, Animut Alebel
PLOS ONE. 2020; 15(1): e0227323
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
31 Epidemiology of postnatal depression and its associated factors in Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Abel Fekadu Dadi, Temesgen Yihunie Akalu, Adhanom Gebreegziabher Baraki, Haileab Fekadu Wolde, Thach Duc Tran
PLOS ONE. 2020; 15(4): e0231940
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
32

Sociodemographic and Obstetric Determinants of Antenatal Depression in Jimma Medical Center, Southwest Ethiopia: Facility Based Case–Control Study

Arefayne Alenko, Sisay Dejene, Shimelis Girma
International Journal of Women's Health. 2020; Volume 12: 557
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
33 Antenatal Depression; its Prevalence of Positive Screen and the Associating Risk Factors Including Labor and Neonatal Outcome
Nurezwana Elias, Sofiah Sulaiman
Current Women s Health Reviews. 2020; 16(2): 107
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
34 Depression and HIV Disease Progression: A Mini-Review
Abdilahi Yousuf, Siti Roshaidai Mohd Arifin, Ramli Musa, Muhammad Lokman Md. Isa
Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health. 2019; 15(1): 153
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
35 Perceived social support and depression among pregnant and child-rearing teenagers in Ile-Ife, Southwest Nigeria
Sunday Joseph Ayamolowo, Aanuoluwapo Omobolanle Olajubu, Funke Elizabeth Akintola
African Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health. 2019; 13(4): 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
36 Maternal mental health in primary care in five low- and middle-income countries: a situational analysis
Emily C. Baron,Charlotte Hanlon,Sumaya Mall,Simone Honikman,Erica Breuer,Tasneem Kathree,Nagendra P. Luitel,Juliet Nakku,Crick Lund,Girmay Medhin,Vikram Patel,Inge Petersen,Sanjay Shrivastava,Mark Tomlinson
BMC Health Services Research. 2016; 16(1)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
37 Antenatal depression in coastal South India: Prevalence and risk factors in the community
Christina George,Anoop RN Lalitha,Abish Antony,Arun V Kumar,KS Jacob
International Journal of Social Psychiatry. 2016; 62(2): 141
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
38 Identifying the women at risk of antenatal anxiety and depression: A systematic review
Alessandra Biaggi,Susan Conroy,Susan Pawlby,Carmine M. Pariante
Journal of Affective Disorders. 2016; 191: 62
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
39 Prevalence of Antenatal Depression and Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Abeokuta North Local Government Area, Nigeria
Okechukwu Thompson,IkeOluwapo Ajayi
Depression Research and Treatment. 2016; 2016: 1
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
40 The Effect of Orange Peel Essential Oil on Postpartum Depression and Anxiety: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
Mojgan Mirghafourvand,Sakineh Mohammad Alizadeh Charandabi,Sevil Hakimi,Laleh Khodaie,Mina Galeshi
Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. 2016; inpress(inpress)
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
41 Depression in women in Indian context
Neena Bohra, Shruti Srivastava, MS Bhatia
Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2015; 57(6): 239
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
42 Effect of orange peel essential oil on postpartum sleep quality: A randomized controlled clinical trial
Mojgan Mirghafourvand,Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh Charandabi,Sevil Hakimi,Laleh Khodaie,Mina Galeshi
European Journal of Integrative Medicine. 2015;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
43 Risk of antenatal psychosocial distress in indigenous women and its management at primary health care centres in Australia
Kaniz Gausia,Sandra C. Thompson,Tricia Nagel,Gill Schierhout,Veronica Matthews,Ross Bailie
General Hospital Psychiatry. 2015;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
  
 
  Search
 
  
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

 
  In this article
    Abstract
    Materials and Me...
   Results
   Discussion
    References
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed9166    
    Printed323    
    Emailed1    
    PDF Downloaded549    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 43    

Recommend this journal