Home | About IPJ | Editorial board | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Instructions | Contact us |   Login 
Industrial Psychiatry Journal
Search Articles   
Advanced search   

Year : 2015  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 40-47  Table of Contents     

Personality disorder, emotional intelligence, and locus of control of patients with alcohol dependence

1 Clinical Psychologist, Government Medical College and Hospital, Sector 32, Chandigarh, India
2 Department of Clinical Psychology, RINPAS, Kanke, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
3 Department of Psychiatry, Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed University), Rural Medical College, Ahmed Nagar, Maharashtra, India
4 Department of Psychology, RBR NES PG College, Jaspur Nagar, Chhattisgarh, India

Date of Web Publication16-Jul-2015

Correspondence Address:
Suprakash Chaudhury
Department of Psychiatry, Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed University), Rural Medical College, Loni, Ahmed Nagar - 413 736, Maharashtra
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0972-6748.160931

Rights and Permissions

Aim: To assess personality disorder (PD), emotional intelligence (EI), and locus of control of alcohol dependent (AD) patients and its comparison with normal controls. Materials and Methods: Based on purposive sampling technique, 33 AD patients were selected from the De-Addiction Ward of Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry and Allied Sciences (RINPAS) and 33 matched normal subjects were selected from Ranchi and nearby places. Both the groups were matched on various sociodemographic parameters, that is, age, gender, and socioeconomic level. All participants were assessed with Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III, Mangal EI Inventory, and Locus of Control scale. Obtained responses were scored by using standard scoring procedures and subsequently statistically analyzed by using Chi-square test. Results: AD patients have more comorbid pathological personality traits and disorders in comparison to their normal counterparts. Depressive, narcissistic, and paranoid PDs were prominent among AD group; followed by schizotypal, antisocial, negativistic, dependent, schizoid, sadistic, masochistic, and borderline PD. In comparison to normal participants, AD patients were significantly deficient in almost all the areas of EI and their locus of control was externally oriented. Conclusion: Patients with AD have significantly higher PDs, low EI, and an external orientation on the locus of control. Identification and management of these comorbid conditions are likely to improve the management and outcome of AD.

Keywords: Alcohol dependence, emotional intelligence, locus of control, personality disorder

How to cite this article:
Prakash O, Sharma N, Singh AR, Sengar K S, Chaudhury S, Ranjan JK. Personality disorder, emotional intelligence, and locus of control of patients with alcohol dependence. Ind Psychiatry J 2015;24:40-7

How to cite this URL:
Prakash O, Sharma N, Singh AR, Sengar K S, Chaudhury S, Ranjan JK. Personality disorder, emotional intelligence, and locus of control of patients with alcohol dependence. Ind Psychiatry J [serial online] 2015 [cited 2022 Nov 26];24:40-7. Available from: https://www.industrialpsychiatry.org/text.asp?2015/24/1/40/160931

Alcohol dependence (AD) is a heterogeneous disorder and has been shown to have high rate of comorbidity with personality disorders (PDs). [1],[2],[3],[4] The National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions reported that 39.5% of the AD subjects have at least one of seven investigated PDs in comparison to 14.8% of controls. [5] Higher rates of PDs are often reported from inpatient samples of AD subjects, where the frequency of at least one axis II diagnosis ranged between 25% and 93%. [6] The types of PDs reported to be associated with AD in the literature are very variable and no clear pattern has emerged. The types of PDs most often reported include dependent; [7] paranoid and antisocial (AS); [8] AS and borderline; [9] AS, histrionic, and dependent; [5] borderline; [10] narcissistic and avoidant; [11] avoidant; [12] and obsessive compulsive. [13] The diagnostic disparity and inconsistency in the literature with regard to the number and types of PDs associated with AD are due to differences in sample characteristics, different criteria and diagnostic instruments employed for identification of PD, to the different type of alcohol use disorder considered (abuse or dependence) and to the different settings (inpatients or outpatients) in which patients were evaluated. [14],[15]

Addiction not only affects the personality of addicts, it also impacts on emotional expression and level of Emotional Intelligence (EI) of addicts. EI has been proposed as the basis for success in life because it underpins a wide range of adaptive behavior in humans. Low EI, on the other hand, is said to be associated with personal and social problems at home and at work. Individuals with low EI have difficulty in managing their emotions and delaying gratification and are thus believed to be vulnerable to alcohol and substance abuse. [16],[17],[18]

An AD individual's relapse to drinking is thought to be related to various interpersonal and intrapersonal factors. The locus of control is a construct that consists of factors that influence and contribute to a person's belief concerning the extent and degree to which he or others can influence life event. Differences in perceived control can influence drinking behavior. An individual who perceives events as being a consequence of his or her own behavior has a belief in internal control. By contrast, individuals who perceive events as not being contingent upon personal actions, but rather influenced by luck, chance or by some other power are externally oriented. Assessment of locus of control in alcoholics has yielded inconsistent results. While some studies found that alcoholics exhibit an internal locus of control, many other studies have indicated that alcoholics have an external control orientation. [19],[20],[21] In view of the paucity of Indian studies in this area, the present study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of PD, level of EI, and locus of control of AD patients and its comparison with normal controls.

   Materials and methods Top

This study was carried out at Ranchi Institute of Neuropsychiatry and Allied Sciences (RINPAS). This is a referral center for all acute psychiatric hospitalizations and outdoor patients within its catchment area which includes patients from states of Jharkhand and Bihar. The protocol for the study was approved by the Institutional Ethical Committee.

Research design

Between Group research design was used for the study. Patients diagnosed with AD were compared with an age and sex-matched normal control group on Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory III ((MCMI-III), Mangal EI Inventory (MEII), and Locus of Control Scale (LCS).


Sample for this study consisted of 33 AD patients and 33 normal control subjects from the general population. All patients were taken from De-Addiction Ward of RINPAS. All the participants of the normal control group were selected from Ranchi and nearby areas. AD patients fulfilling International Classification of Diseases-10 diagnostic criteria for research, and currently abstinent, in protected environment (10-14 days) were included. Patients were in the age range of 20-50 years and educated at least up to standard VIII. AD patients having any other comorbid psychiatric disorder (apart from PD) and organic and neurological disorders were excluded. Co-operative normal participants matched with the patients for age and education was included in the control sample. Normal participants with a history of organic mental disorder, head injury, and other neurological disorders were excluded. An informed consent was taken from all the participants.


Sociodemographic and clinical data sheet

This semi-structured proforma was specially drafted for the study. It contained information about the sociodemographic variables such as age, sex, education, marital status, religion, socioeconomic status, and domicile of the patients. It also included information about the history of alcohol or substance use, family history of mental illness, any history of significant head injury, seizure, mental retardation any other significant physical or psychiatric illness.

Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III

The MCMI-III consists of 175 items scored true or false by the respondent, and it is especially designed to measure personality traits and disorder. The scales are clustered into two groups: 14 PD scales and 10 Clinical Syndrome scales. It also has Social Desirability Scale (Scale Y), a Debasement Scale (Scale Z), and a Validity Scale (Scale V) which include 3 bizarre or highly improbable items to see if responses are consistent throughout. The MCMI-III uses base rate (BR) scores to provide diagnostic clinical cut-offs to indicate presence and prominence of the various personality traits and clinical syndromes. Traditionally, BR scores of 75-84 indicate the presence of clinically significant traits. BR scores of 85 or higher indicate the high probability of clinical diagnosis. BR under 75 are not considered clinically significant and are not to be interpreted. Internal consistency of the scales was estimated to be between 0.67 and 0.90 using Cronbach's alpha, and test-re-test stability was estimated to be between 0.84 and 0.96 over a period of 5-14 days. [22],[23]

Mangal Emotional Intelligence Inventory

The MEII was used to measures the Emotional Intelligence of the persons. It contains a total 100 items, 25 each from the four areas or aspects of EI namely, intrapersonal awareness, interpersonal awareness, intrapersonal management, and inter-personal management. The subject has to respond either "yes" or "no" in each item. Reliability of test is 0.92 (test-re-test method) and validity of this test are 0.71 from the inter-validity formula. [24]

Locus of Control Scale

The LCS was used for determining externally and internally controlled subjects. The scale comprised 41 items having 18 positive items and 23 negative items. It is a three-point scale and the Ss have to respond in terms of "always." "Sometime" and "never," respectively. The scoring of negative items is done on reverse order. The highest score on the scale is 72 and lowest is zero. The higher the score on the scale, the more internally oriented the individual will be. The scale is highly reliable and valid having reliability coefficient 0.55 and coefficient of temporal stability 0.75. [25]


Based on between group research design, hospitalized AD patients were screened according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, and samples were selected for this study. Normal subjects were drawn from Ranchi and nearby areas. Sociodemographic and clinical data sheet was filled after taking informed consent of the subjects. Following the standard administration procedure, MCMI-III, MEII, and LCS were administered to all the subjects included in the study. After test administration, all protocols were scored and analyzed according to standard scoring procedure. The obtained responses were compared and analyzed by using the Chi-square test.

   Results Top

The sociodemographic characteristics of the sample are given in [Table 1]. There was no significant difference found between both the groups on different sociodemographic variables.
Table 1: Sociodemographic characteristics of the sample

Click here to view

[Table 2] presents the individual scores and comparison of both the groups on the personality subscales of MCMI-III. Findings suggest that AD patients showed a higher pathological personality traits and disorders as compared to the normal control subjects. In AD group the most pathological personality traits and disorders were found as depressive and narcissistic (21.2% each) followed by schizotypal, AS, negativistic, dependent (15.2% each) and schizoid (12.1%), sadistic (6.1%), masochistic, and borderline (3.0% each). In the normal control group, the most prevalent pathological personality trait and disorders were narcissistic (15.2%), followed by schizoid (9.1%), depressive, dependent, compulsive and negativistic (3.0% each).
Table 2: Types of personality traits and disorders among patients with alcohol dependence and normal controls

Click here to view

On MEII, significant statistical difference was found in all subscales of EI such as intra personal awareness for own emotions (χ2 = 19.52, P < 0.01), interpersonal awareness for others emotions (χ2 = 17.45, P < 0.01), intra-personal management for own emotions (χ2 = 5.75, P < 0.05), inter-personal management for others emotions (χ2 = 9.32, P < 0.01), and aggregate emotional quotient (χ2 = 24.50, P < 0.01), in comparison to the normal control subjects [Table 3].
Table 3: Emotional intelligence and its subdomains of patient with alcohol dependents and normal controls

Click here to view

[Table 4] shows a comparison of locus of control between patient with AD and normal controls. Twenty-four percent (24.24%) AD patients were externally oriented and 33.33% were internally oriented. Most of the normal controls (81.81%) were internally oriented. Overall there was significant difference between both groups (χ2 = 16.44, P < 0.01).
Table 4: Locus of control of patient with alcohol dependents and normal controls

Click here to view

   Discussion Top

The major findings of the present study were that pathological personality traits and PDs were very common in AD individuals. This finding is consistent with previous studies, which have also reported that pathological personality traits and PDs were very common in individuals with AD. [1],[2],[3],[4],[8],[26],[27] PDs are considered to be an important contributing factor in the pathogenesis, persistence and treatment outcome of AD. According to previous studies, the prevalence of PDs in alcoholism ranges from as low as 22-40% to as high as 58-78%. [4] The most common personality traits in AD patients were negativistic, depressive, and borderline, which is in agreement with earlier studies. [4],[26],[28]

With respect to the types of PDs, the most prevalent PD in the present study was depressive and narcissistic PD. In contrast to this many researchers found that PDs in alcoholics tended to be within the cluster A and B category, such as paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, narcissistic, AS, and borderline. A recent analysis of data from the 2004/2005 National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 34,653) in USA revealed that individuals with PDs are significantly more likely to misuse alcohol. AS, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic PDs display the strongest links with AD, and the relationships are strongest among the heaviest drinkers. [29]

The association between PDs and the persistence of common substance use disorders (SUDs) was determined in a 3-year prospective study of individuals with AD (n = 1172). Persistent SUD was found among 30.1% of participants with AD. Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), borderline PD, and schizotypal PD were significantly associated with persistent alcohol use disorders. Narcissistic, schizoid, and obsessive-compulsive PDs were less consistently associated with persistence of the alcohol use disorder. [30]

A notable finding from our sample was that while the rate of ASPD in alcoholics (15.2% of total sample) but in the normal population rate of ASPD was 0%. However, in other studies 7% to 23% rate of ASPD was reported in clinical samples of AD patients. [9],[11],[13],[31] This discrepancy may be due to small sample size and exclusion of other substance abuse patients in our study. The lack of consistency with earlier studies could be related to the sampling method or to the different assessment tools to diagnose a PD. However, further research is required to find out the prevalence of ASPD and borderline PD in Indian AD patients and normal subjects.

The identification of personality pathology and PD in AD patients may have clinical implications. The course of AD is less favorable in the presence of comorbid PD; this is reflected in more severe alcohol use disturbances, poor social functioning, low rates of treatment retention, and an increased risk of relapse. [4] Psychotherapeutic approaches that provide significant benefits for AD include motivational interviewing, community reinforcement approach, cognitive-behavioral therapy, marital and family therapy, brief interventions, and coping skills training. [32] Of these, only two psychotherapeutic techniques have been shown to be helpful for patients suffering from both addictive and personality problems: The dual focus schema therapy and the dialectical behavior therapy targeting substance abuse. [33],[34] Obviously clinicians treating AD patients with comorbid PD need to be specially trained on psychotherapy of both PDs and addiction.

On the EI scale, the AD group scored significantly lower on every domain of EI as compared to the normal control group [Table 3]. These findings are consistent with the findings of the previous studies. [16],[35],[36],[37] The results of EI scale indicate that subjects with AD lack competence in dealing with their own emotions as well as dealing with other's emotion. This lack of effective capability might be a causal factor for the development of alcoholic behavior. This poor emotional competence may also lead to comorbid psychiatric conditions such as affective disorders, neurotic disorders, suicide as well. Poor emotional ability also results in the poor ability to handle the challenges in different spheres of life, professional growth, inability to attain the objective either in personal or professional life. EI has been credited with successful leadership performance in the workplace, academic achievement, effective communication, assertiveness, and positive relationship that can lead to effective coping. Lower EI scores are associated with problematic behavior related to increased use of alcohol and illegal substance. [35] The present study also adds to the existing body of knowledge regarding EI and its correlation to alcohol use.

Emotional intelligence has also been linked to the reduction in the risk factors that have been traditionally associated with AD. Stress is a major risk factor for the development of AD and also continuity of use contributing to relapse of AD. [38] An increase in stress is a major contributor to the onset of alcohol use in. Studies indicate that a high degree of EI is associated with lower stress levels and fewer psychological symptoms pertaining to traumatic experiences. [39] In addition, subjects with high EI are better equipped to deal with and recover from stress and hence are less likely to fall sick or be vulnerable to the conditions brought upon by stress. [40] Therefore, improving EI skills can serve as a protective force, lowering one's susceptible risk to the factors that have traditionally predicted alcohol use and abuse. [17]

Locus of control has been generated to assess one's orientation of decision making (self-determine decisions of life or determine by the outer world). In the present study, AD individuals were significantly more externally oriented in their life's decisions and events than normal controls [Table 4]. Findings of the present study are consistent with previous studies, which also reported that people with AD exhibit a greater external locus of control than the normal population. [19],[20],[41],[42],[43] According to the theory of LOC, a person with internal LOC perceives that consequences result from the personal action. In contrasts, a person who has external LOC perceives consequences as caused by external events, not by individual responsibility. [41] When people believe that they have no control, they will remain passive, not exert themselves, and give up easily. [44] It has been observed that in comparison to patients with AD, a patient in the remission stage tends to have internal LOC but might go back to external LOC once they resume drinking alcohol. [45] It has also been reported that using the autogenic relaxation to facilitate the acquisition of self-control by biofeedback training, can increase personal responsibility and foster an internal locus of control in subjects undergoing treatment for AD. [46] In view of the above and the findings of our study, it is likely that making an effort to produce control experiences and promote the internal locus of control for AD patients may improve outcome of treatment. [41]


There are certain limitations of this research. The sample size was small and all participants were male. Furthermore, the data are cross-sectional, rather than longitudinal, and, therefore, the findings cannot be used to explain causal relationships. The diagnosis of PD was not based on structured clinical interviews. Future studies should include a larger sample, include both sexes and use structured clinical interviews for making the diagnoses.

   Conclusion Top

From the present study, it can be concluded that personality pathology and disorders are significantly more common in AD patients. Individuals with AD have low EI and an external orientation on LOC. This information could be helpful in alerting the Clinician to understand and handle difficulties in the therapeutic process. Incorporation of EI enhancement program and steps to foster an internal LOC in the therapy of AD patients is likely to improve the outcome. Further research on the fundamental organization of PDs and the behavior modification implications of these disorders with comorbid conditions is needed.

   References Top

Gonzalez C. Screening for personality disorder in drug and alcohol dependence. Psychiatry Res 2014;217:121-3.  Back to cited text no. 1
Preuss UW, Johann M, Fehr C, Koller G, Wodarz N, Hesselbrock V, et al. Personality disorders in alcohol-dependent individuals: Relationship with alcohol dependence severity. Eur Addict Res 2009;15:188-95.  Back to cited text no. 2
Kakunje A, Kanaradi H, Chand P, Sharma PS, Pai G, Sowmya P. Personality profile of persons with alcohol dependence with and without cirrhosis: A hospital based comparative study. Int J Health Rehabil Sci 2012;1:94-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
Mellos E, Liappas I, Paparrigopoulos T. Comorbidity of personality disorders with alcohol abuse. In Vivo 2010;24:761-9.  Back to cited text no. 4
Grant BF, Stinson FS, Dawson DA, Chou SP, Ruan WJ, Pickering RP. Co-occurrence of 12-month alcohol and drug use disorders and personality disorders in the United States: Results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2004;61:361-8.  Back to cited text no. 5
Preuss UW, Koller G, Barnow S, Eikmeier M, Soyka M. Suicidal behavior in alcohol-dependent subjects: The role of personality disorders. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2006;30:866-77.  Back to cited text no. 6
Echeburúa E, de Medina RB, Aizpiri J. Alcoholism and personality disorders: An exploratory study. Alcohol Alcohol 2005;40:323-6.  Back to cited text no. 7
Kumar S, Chaudhury S, Simlai J. Personality disorders in alcohol dependence. RINPAS J 2011;3:322-5.  Back to cited text no. 8
Morgenstern J, Langenbucher J, Labouvie E, Miller KJ. The comorbidity of alcoholism and personality disorders in a clinical population: Prevalence rates and relation to alcohol typology variables. J Abnorm Psychol 1997;106:74-84.  Back to cited text no. 9
Zikos E, Gill KJ, Charney DA. Personality disorders among alcoholic outpatients: Prevalence and course in treatment. Can J Psychiatry 2010;55:65-73.  Back to cited text no. 10
Pettinati HM, Pierce JD Jr, Belden PP, Meyers K. The relationship of axis II personality disorders to other known predictors of addiction treatment outcome. Am J Addict 1999;8:136-47.  Back to cited text no. 11
Fernández-Montalvo J, Landa N, López-Goñi JJ, Lorea I. Personality disorders in alcoholics: A comparative pilot study between the IPDE and the MCMI-II. Addict Behav 2006;31:1442-8.  Back to cited text no. 12
Echeburúa E, De Medina RB, Aizpiri J. Comorbidity of alcohol dependence and personality disorders: A comparative study. Alcohol Alcohol 2007;42:618-22.  Back to cited text no. 13
Verheul R, Kranzler HR, Poling J, Tennen H, Ball S, Rounsaville BJ. Axis I and axis II disorders in alcoholics and drug addicts: Fact or artifact? J Stud Alcohol 2000;61:101-10.  Back to cited text no. 14
Sher KJ, Trull TJ, Bartholow BD, Vieth D. Personality and alcoholism: Issues, methods, and etiological processes. In: Leonard KE, Blane HT, editors. Psychological Theories of Drinking and Alcoholism. 2 nd ed. New York: Guilford Press; 1999.  Back to cited text no. 15
Riley H, Schutte NS. Low emotional intelligence as a predictor of substance-use problems. J Drug Educ 2003;33:391-8.  Back to cited text no. 16
Coelho KR. Emotional intelligence: An untapped resource for alcohol and other drug related prevention among adolescents and adults. Depress Res Treat 2012;2012:281019.  Back to cited text no. 17
Claros E, Sharma M. The relationship between emotional intelligence and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco among college students. J Alcohol Drug Educ 2012;56:8-37.  Back to cited text no. 18
Farhadinasab A, Allahverdipour H, Bashirian S, Mahjoub H. Lifetime pattern of substance abuse, parental support, religiosity, and locus of control in adolescent and young male users. Iran J Public Health 2008;37:88-95.  Back to cited text no. 19
Singh A, Singh D. Personality characteristics, locus of control and hostility among alcoholics and non-alcoholics. Int J Psychol Stud 2011;3:99-105.  Back to cited text no. 20
Blagojevik-Dama¡ek N, Maja F, Vesna P, Zoran C, Djek M. Locus of control, social support and alcoholism. Alcohol J Alcohol Relat Addict 2012;48:5.  Back to cited text no. 21
Millon T. Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III Manual. 3 rd ed. Minneapolis, MN: NCS Pearson; 2006.  Back to cited text no. 22
Strack S. Combined use of PACL and the MCMI-III TM to assess normal range of personality styles. In: Craig RJ, editor. New Directions in Interpreting the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III TM ). New York: John Wiley and Sons; 2005.  Back to cited text no. 23
Mangal SK, Mangal S. Manual for Mangal Emotional Intelligence Inventory. Agra: National Psychological Corporation; 1985.  Back to cited text no. 24
Hasnain N, Joshi DD. Manual for Locus of Control Scale. Lucknow: Ankur Psychological Agency; 1992. p. 1-8.  Back to cited text no. 25
Chaudhury S, Das SK, Ukil B. Psychological assessment of alcoholism in males. Indian J Psychiatry 2006;48:114-7.  Back to cited text no. 26
[PUBMED]  Medknow Journal  
Ranjan JK, Prakash O, Jahan M, Singh AR. Co-morbid personality disorders among alcohol dependent patients. East J Psychiatry 2011;14:11-4.  Back to cited text no. 27
Agrawal A, Narayanan G, Oltmanns TF. Personality pathology and alcohol dependence at midlife in a community sample. Personal Disord 2013;4:55-61.  Back to cited text no. 28
Maclean JC, French MT. Personality disorders, alcohol use, and alcohol misuse. Soc Sci Med 2014;120:286-300.  Back to cited text no. 29
Hasin D, Fenton MC, Skodol A, Krueger R, Keyes K, Geier T, et al. Personality disorders and the 3-year course of alcohol, drug, and nicotine use disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2011;68:1158-67.  Back to cited text no. 30
Wagner T, Krampe H, Stawicki S, Reinhold J, Jahn H, Mahlke K, et al. Substantial decrease of psychiatric comorbidity in chronic alcoholics upon integrated outpatient treatment - Results of a prospective study. J Psychiatr Res 2004;38:619-35.  Back to cited text no. 31
Miller WR, Wilbourne PL. Mesa Grande: A methodological analysis of clinical trials of treatments for alcohol use disorders. Addiction 2002;97:265-77.  Back to cited text no. 32
van den Bosch LM, Verheul R. Patients with addiction and personality disorder: Treatment outcomes and clinical implications. Curr Opin Psychiatry 2007;20:67-71.  Back to cited text no. 33
Kienast T, Foerster J. Psychotherapy of personality disorders and concomitant substance dependence. Curr Opin Psychiatry 2008;21:619-24.  Back to cited text no. 34
Brackett MA, Mayer JD. Convergent, discriminant, and incremental validity of competing measures of emotional intelligence. Pers Soc Psychol Bull 2003;29:1147-58.  Back to cited text no. 35
Austin EJ, Saklofske DH, Egan V. Personality, well-being and health correlates of trait emotional intelligence. Pers Individ Dif 2005;38:547-58.  Back to cited text no. 36
Radhakrishnan R, Gayatridevi, Velayadhan. Emotional intelligence and interpersonal trust of alcoholics, deaddicts and nonalcoholics. Indian J Appl Psychol 2009;46:75-82.  Back to cited text no. 37
Brady KT, Sonne SC. The role of stress in alcohol use, alcoholism treatment, and relapse. Alcohol Res Health 1999;23:263-71.  Back to cited text no. 38
Hunt N, Evans D. Predicting traumatic stress using emotional intelligence. Behav Res Ther 2004;42:791-8.  Back to cited text no. 39
Cherniss C. Emotional intelligence and the good community. Am J Community Psychol 2002;30:1-11.  Back to cited text no. 40
Yeh MY. Measuring readiness to change and locus of control belief among male alcohol-dependent patients in Taiwan: Comparison of the different degrees of alcohol dependence. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2008;62:533-9.  Back to cited text no. 41
Menon IS, Edward M. Locus of control, assertiveness and general well-being among alcoholics and non-alcoholics. Guru J Behav Soc Sci 2014;2:258-64.  Back to cited text no. 42
Zhang AY, Harmon JA, Werkner J, McCormick RA. Impacts of motivation for change on the severity of alcohol use by patients with severe and persistent mental illness. J Stud Alcohol 2004;65:392-7.  Back to cited text no. 43
Skinner EA. Perceived Control, Motivation, and Coping. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publication; 1995.  Back to cited text no. 44
Vielva I, Iraurgi I. Cognitive and behavioural factors as predictors of abstinence following treatment for alcohol dependence. Addiction 2001;96:297-303.  Back to cited text no. 45
Sharp C, Hurford DP, Allison J, Sparks R, Cameron BP. Facilitation of internal locus of control in adolescent alcoholics through a brief biofeedback-assisted autogenic relaxation training procedure. J Subst Abuse Treat 1997;14:55-60.  Back to cited text no. 46


  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]

This article has been cited by
1 Are there gender differences in locus of control specific to alcohol dependence?
Andrew McPherson,Colin R Martin
Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2017; 26(1-2): 258
[Pubmed] | [DOI]


    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article
    Materials and me...
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded266    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 1    

Recommend this journal