|Year : 2015 | Volume
| Issue : 1 | Page : 54-58
The relation between emotional intelligence and criminal behavior: A study among convicted criminals
Neelu Sharma1, Om Prakash2, KS Sengar1, Suprakash Chaudhury3, Amool R Singh1
1 Department of Clinical Psychology, RINPAS, Kanke, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
2 Clinical Psychologist, Government Medical College and Hospital, Sector 32, Chandigarh, India
3 Department of Psychiatry, Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed University), Rural Medical College, Loni, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India
|Date of Web Publication||16-Jul-2015|
Department of Clinical Psychology, RINPAS, Kanke, Ranchi - 834 006, Jharkhand
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
| Abstract|| |
Background: Lack of emotional intelligence (EI) may lead to maladjustment and inability to achieve desired goals. A relationship between low levels of EI and crime has been proposed. Aim: The aim was to assess the relationship between EI and criminal behavior. Materials and Methods: Study sample consisted of 202 subjects, in whom 101 subjects were convicted offenders, and 101 were matched normal controls. Offender group comprised of individuals convicted for different crimes such as murder, rape, and robbery, selected from Birsa Munda Central Jail, Hotwar, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India based on purposive sampling. Sample of the normal control group was taken from Ranchi and nearby areas. All subjects gave informed consent for participating in the study. Both the groups were matched on age, gender, education, occupation, and marital status. All participants were assessed on General Health Questionnaire-12 and Mangal Emotional Intelligence Inventory (MEII). The results were analyzed using statistical package SPSS-version 20. Results: The group of convicted offenders obtained significantly lower scores on all the domains of MEII such as intrapersonal awareness (own emotions), interpersonal awareness (others emotions), intrapersonal management (own emotions) and interpersonal management (others emotions), and aggregate emotional quotient in comparison to their normal counterparts. Conclusion: The convicted offenders group had significantly lower EI compared to normal subjects. Starting EI enhancement program in prison can help the inmates better understand their feelings and emotions.
Keywords: Criminal behavior, emotional intelligence, emotional quotient
|How to cite this article:|
Sharma N, Prakash O, Sengar K S, Chaudhury S, Singh AR. The relation between emotional intelligence and criminal behavior: A study among convicted criminals. Ind Psychiatry J 2015;24:54-8
|How to cite this URL:|
Sharma N, Prakash O, Sengar K S, Chaudhury S, Singh AR. The relation between emotional intelligence and criminal behavior: A study among convicted criminals. Ind Psychiatry J [serial online] 2015 [cited 2022 Dec 7];24:54-8. Available from: https://www.industrialpsychiatry.org/text.asp?2015/24/1/54/160934
Emotional intelligence (EI) is the capacity to understand and manage emotion; however, the content and boundaries of this construct remain unsettled.  Mayer and Salovey, the who originally used the term, defined EI: The ability to perceive emotion, integrate emotion to facilitate thought, understand emotions, and to regulate emotions to promote personal growth.  They identified two areas of EI: experiential (ability to perceive, respond, and manipulate emotional information without necessarily understanding it) and strategic (ability to understand and manage emotions without necessarily perceiving feelings well or fully experiencing them). , Bar-On, the originator of the term "emotion quotient," possessing a slightly different outlook, defines EI as being concerned with understanding oneself and others, relating to people, and adapting to and coping with the immediate surroundings to be more successful in dealing with environmental demands.  Goleman described a functional view of EI stating that the benefits of EI are to motivate individuals, assist with impulse control and regulation of mood, and allow individuals to persist in situations in which they encounter barriers to success.  Goleman's model outlines four main EI constructs: The first construct, self-awareness is the ability to read one's emotions and recognize their impact while using gut feelings to guide decisions. The second construct, self-management involves controlling one's emotions and impulses and adapting to changing circumstances. The third construct, social awareness implies the ability to sense, understand, and react to other's emotions while comprehending social networks. The fourth construct, relationship management includes the ability to inspire, influence, and develop others while managing conflict.  Collectively, these factors help individuals function effectively on a daily basis and in this respect, EI can be conceptualized as a person's "success-oriented traits." 
The construct of EI is important because it provides a framework to understand how emotional states affect social functioning, and it may have a predictive value above and beyond that of cognitive intelligence with regard to real life outcomes.  EI has been likened to several other psychological constructs including Thorndike's social intelligence (the ability to understand others and act wisely in relationships),  Gardner's theory on multiple intelligences (e.g. intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligence),  practical intelligence (one's ability to deal with real-life problems),  and the condition of alexithymia (characterized by difficulty identifying one's emotions, difficulty describing emotions to others, constricted imaginal processes, and an externally-focused, stimulus-specific cognitive style). ,
Emotional intelligence is deeply related to aggression and offending. ,,, Persons with high EI levels are more able to moderate their emotions and are less impulsive. On the other hand, individuals with low EI levels are more prone to risky behavior. They also have a hard time understanding situations from the perspective of others and, therefore, tend to be less empathetic.  Individuals with higher EI levels have a better ability to empathize, generally leading to their ability to conform better to organizational requirements.  A reduced capacity to regulate emotions could possibly maintain offending pattern of behavior in criminals. For example, internet child sexual abuse is often preceded by unregulated negative feelings.  It is argued that the offending behavior itself can become a means of dissipating and regulating this negative affect.  A reduced capacity to regulate emotions in young people with offending difficulties could also result in what is referred to as emotions exerting their full "motivational force."  A reduced capacity to regulate anger, desire, and sexual arousal may result in an assault, theft, and sexual assault, respectively. 
Some recent studies, consistently report EI deficits in criminals. ,,,,,, In addition, some studies indicate that offenders are deficient in subcomponents of EI such as social problem-solving,  empathy,  social competency,  flexibility,  impulse control,  and self-regard.  In view of the paucity of Indian studies in this area, the present study was designed to investigate the relationship between EI and criminal behavior and compare this with a normal control group.
| Materials and methods|| |
This study was carried out at Birsa Munda Central Jail, Hotwar Ranchi, Jharkhand, India. The project proposal was approved by the Institutional Ethical Committee. Endorsement from the prison authority was also taken.
This was between the group design studies consisting of two groups: convicted criminals group and normal control group.
The study sample consisted of 202 subjects, in which 101 were convicted persons from Birsa Munda Central Jail, Hotwar, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India and 101 were normal controls. Criminals group comprised convicted offenders involved in different crimes such as murder, rape, and robbery. Samples of offender group were selected based on the purposive sampling. Sample of matched normal control group was taken from Ranchi and nearby areas.
Inclusion criteria for offender group
Inclusion criteria for normal control group
- Male prisoners convicted for crimes such as murder, robbery or sexual crimes.
- Educated up to 10 th Std.
- Age range 25-45.
- Gave informed consent to participate in the study.
Exclusion criteria for offender group and normal control group
- Male participants who had not been convicted or accused by any court for any crime.
- Educated up to 10 th Std.
- Age range 25-45.
- Gave informed consent to participate in the study.
- Family history of mental illness
- Vision or hearing impairment
- History of any psychiatric or physical illness
- Scores of 2 or more on General Health Questionnaire (GHQ).
Sociodemographic data sheet
This is a semi-structured performa. It contains information about sociodemographic variables such as age, sex, religion, education, marital status, domicile, and occupation of the subjects.
General Health Questionnaire-12
The GHQ-12 is a self-administered screening test, which is sensitive to the presence of psychiatric disorders in individuals presenting in primary care settings and nonpsychiatric clinical settings. The GHQ-12 is not designed to detect symptoms that occur with specific psychiatric diagnoses, rather, it provides a measure of overall psychological health or wellness. The GHQ-12 has a sensitivity of 89% and specificity of 80%. 
Mangal Emotional Intelligence Inventory
The Mangal Emotional Intelligence Inventory (MEII) was used to measures the EI of the persons. It contains 100 items, 25 each from the four areas or aspects of EI namely, intrapersonal awareness (knowing about one's own emotion), interpersonal awareness (knowing about other's emotion), intrapersonal management (managing one's own emotion), and interpersonal management (managing others emotion). The subject has to respond either "yes" or "no" in each item. Reliability of test is 0.92 (Test Re-test method) and validity of this test is 0.71 from the intervalidity formula. 
After taking formal permission from prison authority to conduct the study in prison, the participant prisoners were briefly introduced with the purpose and aim of the study. GHQ-12 was administered on both the convicted group and normal control group to rule out any probable psychiatric disorders and these subjects were excluded from the study. Informed consent was obtained from both the groups for the study Sociodemographic information was collected using sociodemographic data sheet. MEII was administered upon all the participants to assess their EI.
The results were analyzed using statistical package SPSS-version 20 IBM. Sociodemographic variables of both the groups were analyzed and compared using Chi-square test. Age and performance of both the groups on MEII were analyzed by using t-test.
| Results|| |
The study group comprised of 101 convicted offenders involved in different crimes such as murder, rape, and robbery. An equal number of age and sex-matched normal subjects comprised the control group. Sociodemographic characteristics of the sample revealed that there was no significant difference found between the two groups on sociodemographic characteristics that is, age, education, employment, marital status, except religion, and residence. In both the groups majority of participants were educated up to intermediate, unemployed, married belonging to rural background, middle economic status, and Hindu community [Table 1].
|Table 1: Sociodemographic characteristics of convicted offenders and normal controls |
Click here to view
On the MEII the offender group obtained significantly lower scores in comparison to the normal control group on all the subscales of EI such as intrapersonal awareness (own emotions), interpersonal awareness (others emotions), intrapersonal management (own emotions) and interpersonal management (others emotions), and aggregate emotional quotient [Table 2]. These differences suggest that overall emotional adjustment of offenders group were grossly inferior on all the subscales of the test. It also suggests their poor emotional control in comparison to the normal control group.
|Table 2: Performance of convicted offenders and normal controls on MEII |
Click here to view
| Discussion|| |
In the present study, we explored the level of EI in convicted offenders and compared this with the normal control group and found that criminals had low EI significantly. This finding is consistent with some recent studies, which reported that criminals have deficits in EI. ,,,,,, In the current study four sub-domains of EI were measured, that is, intrapersonal awareness, interpersonal awareness, intrapersonal management, and interpersonal management. The convicted persons group was grossly impaired in all the domains of EI. This finding is also supported by findings of the previous researches. , The result of the present study, reveals that offender group was more impaired on intrapersonal management subscale, which is responsible for the effectively dealing of one's own emotion [Table 2]. Impaired performance on this subscale suggests poor emotional management with the self in offender group. In the present study, participants of the normal group have scored preferably well on all the domains of EI, which suggests their suitable emotional awareness, adjustment, and ability to exchange the emotions with others. To this point, it is interesting to note that EI appears to be strongly related to personality in noncriminal populations, , although there is some debate as to whether it is a unique cognitive construct  or a part of another personality trait.  Some subcomponents of EI such as social problem-solving also correlate with personality in offenders. 
Impulsivity is one of most important characteristic of the personality of criminals, which force them to act haphazardly. Impulse control, problem-solving, and social skills are the components of EI, which was impaired in offenders in the present study as they performed poorly on all the subcomponents of EI test. Offenders demonstrate lower levels of flexibility and higher rates of impulsivity.  Flexibility and impulsivity were found to interact with each other in the utilization of fantasy as a forum for planning and organizing violent crimes.  Offenders also tend to generate fewer means for solving problems,  adopt aggressive problem-solving strategies,  and precede impulsivity in problem-solving.  Interestingly, higher impulsivity relates to poorer social problem-solving skills and the latter relates to greater aggression. 
Malevolent creativity is defined as "the interaction among aptitude process, and environment by which an individual or group produce novel and useful ideas as defined within a social context …. that are intended to materially, mentally or physically harm oneself or others."  Harmful acts such as terrorism, deception, abuse, and theft can be malevolently creative.  Currently, the literature suggests that perceptions of unfair situations facilitate the generations of malevolently creative ideas;  trait physical aggression positively relates to malevolent creativity, while conscientiousness and EI relate negatively to malevolent creativity. , It is therefore, suggested that future studies should assess both EI and malevolent creativity in criminals.
Small sample size was a drawback of the present study. The study and control groups were not matched for religion and residence, which may have affected the results. The female population was excluded from the study thus limiting its generalization. Future studies can compare the performance of male and female prisoners on EI to see which gender performs better in emotional dealing.
| Conclusion|| |
The offenders group had significantly lower EI in comparison to the normal group. The offenders group was found to be impaired in dealing with the emotions, whether they deal with their own emotions or dealing with other's emotions. In view of the above starting, EI enhancement program in prison can help the inmates better understand their feelings and emotions.
| Acknowledgments|| |
We are grateful to the Superintendent of Hotwar Central Jail (Ranchi, Jharkhand, India) for his support in conducting this study. We thank all the staff and inmates of the prison for their co-operation.
| References|| |
Barchard KA, Hakstian AR. The nature and measurement of emotional intelligence abilities: Basic dimensions and their relationships with other cognitive ability and personality variables. Educ Psychol Meas 2004;64:437-62.
Mayer JD, Salovey P. What is emotional intelligence? In: Salovey P, Sluyter D, editors. Emotional Development and Emotional Intelligence: Implications for Educators. New York: Basic Books; 1997. p. 3-31.
Stys Y, Brown SL. A Review of the Emotional Intelligence Literature and Implications for Corrections. Ontario (Ottawa): Research Branch Correctional Service of Canada; 2004. p. 4-20.
Bar-On R. Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-I): Technical Manual. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems; 1997.
Goleman D. Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam Books; 1995.
Goleman D. Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books; 1998.
Harrod NR, Scheer SD. An exploration of adolescent emotional intelligence in relation to demographic characteristics. Adolescence 2005;40:503-12.
Schulze R, Roberts RD, Zeidner M, Matthews G. Theory, measurement, and applications of emotional intelligence: Frames of reference. In: Schulze R, Roberts RD, editors. Emotional Intelligence: An International Handbook. Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe and Huber Publishers; 2005. p. 3-30.
Petrides KV, Frederickson N, Furnham A. The role of trait emotional intelligence in academic performance and deviant behavior at school. Pers Individ Dif 2004;36:277-93.
Gardner H. Frames of Mind. New York: Basic Books; 1983.
Sternberg RJ, Grigorenko EL. Practical intelligence and its developments. In: Bar-On R, Parker JD, editors. The Handbook of Emotional Intelligence: Theory, Development, Assessment, and Application at Home, School, and in the Workplace. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 2000. p. 215-43.
Ciarrochi J, Godsell C. Mindfulness-based emotional intelligence: A theory and review of the literature. In: Schulze R, Roberts RD, editors. Emotional Intelligence: An International Handbook. Cambridge, MA: Hogrefe and Huber Publishers; 2005. p. 69-90.
Taylor GJ, Bagby RM, Parker JD. Disorders of Affect Regulation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press; 1997.
Malterer MB, Glass SJ, Newman JP. Psychopathy and trait emotional intelligence. Pers Individ Dif 2008;44:735-45.
Hayes JM, O'Reilly G. Psychiatric disorder, IQ, and emotional intelligence among adolescent detainees: A comparative study. Leg Criminol Psychol 2013;18:30-47.
Megreya AM. Criminal thinking styles and emotional intelligence in Egyptian offenders. Crim Behav Ment Health 2013;23:56-71.
García-Sancho E, Salguero JM, Fernández-Berrocal P. The relationships between emotional intelligence and aggression: A systematic review. Aggress Violent Behav 2014;19:584-91.
Henley M, Long NJ. Teaching emotional intelligence to impulsive-aggressive youth. Reclaiming Child Youth 1999;7:224-9.
Abraham R. Emotional intelligence in organizations: A conceptualization. Genet Soc Gen Psychol Monogr 1999;125:209-24.
Quayle E, Erooga M, Wright L, Taylor M, Harbinson D. Only Pictures? Therapeutic Approaches with Internet Offenders. Lyme Regis: Russell House Publishing; 2006.
Pizarro DA, Salovey P. On being and becoming a good person: The role of emotional intelligence in moral development and behavior. In: Aronson J, editor. Improving Academic Achievement: Impact of Psychological Factors on Education. San Diego: Academic Press; 2002. p. 247-66.
Qualter P, Ireland J, Gardner K. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the schutte self-report emotional intelligence scale (SSREI) in a sample of male offenders. Br J Forensic Pract 2010;12:43-51.
McMurran M, McGuire J. Social Problem Solving and Offending: Evidence, Evaluation and Evolution. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons; 2005.
Kirsch LG, Becker JV. Emotional deficits in psychopathy and sexual sadism: implications for violent and sadistic behavior. Clin Psychol Rev 2007;27:904-22.
Bergeron TK, Valliant PM. Executive function and personality in adolescent and adult offenders versus non-offenders. J Offender Rehabil 2001;33:27-45.
Sutker PB, Moan CE, Allain AN. Assessment of cognitive control in psychopathic and normal prisoners. J Behav Assess 1983;5:275-87.
Strüber D, Lück M, Roth G. Sex, aggression and impulse control: An integrative account. Neurocase 2008;14:93-121.
Martin R. Perceptions of self and significant others in assaultive and nonassaultive criminals. J Police Crim Psychol 1985;1:2-13.
Goldberg DP. The Detection of Psychiatric Illness by Questionnaire. London: Oxford University Press; 1972.
Mangal SK, Mangal S. Manual for mangal emotional intelligence inventory. Agra: National Psychological Corporation; 1985.
Moriarty N, Stough C, Tidmarsh P, Eger D, Dennison S. Deficits in emotional intelligence underlying adolescent sex offending. J Adolesc 2001;24:743-51.
van der Zee K, Thijs M, Schakel L. The relationship of emotional intelligence with academic intelligence and the big five. Eur J Pers 2002;16:103-25.
Schulte MJ, Ree MJ, Carretta TR. Emotional intelligence: Not much more than g and personality. Pers Individ Dif 2004;37:1059-68.
Mayer JD, Salovey P, Caruso DR. Emotional intelligence: New ability or eclectic traits? Am Psychol 2008;63:503-17.
McMurran M, Fyffe S, McCarthy L, Duggan C, Latham A. 'Stop and Think!': Social problem-solving therapy with personality-disordered offenders. Crim Behav Ment Health 2001;11:273-85.
Deu N. Executive function and criminal fantasy in the premeditation of criminal behaviour. Crim Behav Ment Health 1998;8:41-50.
Grier PE. Cognitive problem-solving skills in antisocial rapists. Crim Justice Behav 1988;15:501-14.
Slaby RG, Guerra NG. Cognitive mediators of aggression in adolescent offenders: 1, Assessment. Dev Psychol 1988;24:580-8.
Ingram JC, Marchioni P, Hill G, Caraveo-Ramos E, McNeil B. Recidivism, perceived problem-solving abilities, MMPI characteristics, and violence: A study of black and white incarcerated male adult offenders. J Clin Psychol 1985;41:425-32.
McMurran M, Blair M, Egan V. An investigation of the correlations between aggression, impulsiveness, social problem-solving, and alcohol use. Aggress Behav 2002;28:439-45.
Harris DJ, Reiter-Palmon R, Kaufman JC. The effect of emotional intelligence and task type on malevolent creativity. Psychol Aesthet Creat Arts 2013;7:237-44.
Cropley DH, Kaufman JC, Cropley AJ. Malevolant creativity: A functional model of creativity in terrorism and crime. Creat Res J 2008;20:105-15.
Clark K, James K. Justice and positive and negative creativity. Creat Res J 1999;12:311-20.
Lee S, Dow G. Malevolant creativity: Does personality influence malicious divergent thinking? Creat Res J 2011;23:73-82.
[Table 1], [Table 2]
|This article has been cited by|
||The Influence of Occupational Therapy on Self-Regulation in Juvenile Offenders
| ||Rachel Dowdy, Joanne Estes, Cara McCarthy, Jane Onders, Molly Onders, Alexandra Suttner |
| ||Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma. 2022; |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Enjoying others’ distress and indifferent to threat? Changes in prefrontal-posterior coupling during social-emotional processing are linked to malevolent creativity
| ||Corinna M. Perchtold-Stefan, Andreas Fink, Christian Rominger, Eniko Szabó, Ilona Papousek |
| ||Brain and Cognition. 2022; 163: 105913 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence, Self-Acceptance, and Positive Coping Styles Among Chinese Psychiatric Nurses in Shandong
| ||Qinghua Lu, Bin Wang, Rui Zhang, Juan Wang, Feifei Sun, Guiyuan Zou |
| ||Frontiers in Psychology. 2022; 13 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Failure to reappraise: Malevolent creativity is linked to revenge ideation and impaired reappraisal inventiveness in the face of stressful, anger-eliciting events
| ||Corinna M. Perchtold-Stefan, Andreas Fink, Christian Rominger, Ilona Papousek |
| ||Anxiety, Stress, & Coping. 2021; 34(4): 437 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Comparison of Emotional Dispositions Between Street Gang and Non-Gang Prisoners
| ||Jaimee S. Mallion, Jane L. Wood |
| ||Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 2021; 36(9-10): 4018 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|
||Trauma-oriented recovery framework with offenders: A necessary missing link in offenders' rehabilitation
| ||Keren Gueta, Gila Chen, Natti Ronel |
| ||Aggression and Violent Behavior. 2021; : 101678 |
|[Pubmed] | [DOI]|