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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 28  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 185-197

Effect size of lithium, carbamazepine, and sodium valproate in child and adolescent bipolar 1 disorder during manic phase: A prospective open-label study

1 Department of Psychiatry, Hind institute of Medical Science, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Psychiatry, Central Institute of Psychiatry, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India
3 Department of Psychiatry, Dr. D Y Patil Medical College, Dr. D Y Patil University, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Suprakash Chaudhury
Department of Psychiatry, Dr. D. Y. Patil Medical College, Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pimpri, Pune - 411 018, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ipj.ipj_3_19

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Aim: The aim was to evaluate the “effect size (ES),” tolerability, and acceptability of lithium, carbamazepine, and sodium valproate in the acute phase treatment of pediatric Bipolar 1 disorder patients during manic phase. Materials and Methods: This hospital-based, prospective, open-label study included 67 patients in manic phase of bipolar I disorder, aged 6–17 years, after informed consent by the caregivers. The patients were randomly assigned to the lithium group (n = 30), carbamazepine group (n = 20), and sodium valproate group (n = 17). They were assessed with the Schedule for Affective Disorders for School Age Children's-Present and Life time version administered to the parent and child separately, Conner's Abbreviated Rating Scale, and Cassidy Scale for Manic States (CSMS). Lithium was started in the dose of 30 mg per kg of body weight, carbamazepine in the dose of 10–20 mg/kg/day, and sodium valproate in the dose of 10–20 mg/kg body weight. Antipsychotic (chlorpromazine [CPZ] 100–500 mg per day or haloperidol up to 750 mg of CPZ equivalent) was allowed in the study. Injection haloperidol 10 mg and injection promethazine 50 mg intramuscular were allowed for initial 3–5 days to combat acute agitation. Rescue medication such as injection lorazepam 2–4 mg intramuscular was allowed throughout the study duration. The patients were rated weekly on CSMS, Bipolar Clinical Global Impression, Udvalg for kliniske Undersogelser Side Effect Rating Scale, and side effect checklist for lithium, sodium valproate, and carbamazepine, respectively. The serum level of concerned drug was obtained at weekly intervals and dose hiked, if needed to get target serum level. Results: The response rate was 90% in lithium group, 70% in carbamazepine group, and 88% in sodium valproate group on the basis of ≥33% reduction from baseline CSMS. The effects of change of CSMS over the 6 weeks across the three treatment group were found to be highly statistically significant. Conclusions: In the acute phase treatment of pediatric bipolar 1 disorder patients during manic phase, the ES for lithium was 0.85, for carbamazepine 0.71, and for sodium valproate 0.84. These agents are well tolerated in treating bipolar disorder in children.

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