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   2012| January-June  | Volume 21 | Issue 1  
    Online since April 22, 2013

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Psychological issues in pediatric obesity
Gurvinder Kalra, Avinash De Sousa, Sushma Sonavane, Nilesh Shah
January-June 2012, 21(1):11-17
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.110941  PMID:23766572
Pediatric obesity is a major health problem and has reached epidemiological proportions today. The present paper reviews major psychological issues in pediatric obesity from a developmental perspective. Research and literature has shown that a number of developmental, family, maternal and child factors are responsible in the genesis of pediatric obesity. Family food habits, early developmental lifestyle of the child, parenting, early family relationships and harmony all contribute towards the growth and development of a child. The present review focuses on the role of developmental psychological factors in the pathogenesis of pediatric obesity and highlights the developmental factors that must be kept in mind when evaluating a case of pediatric obesity.
  8,188 95 7
Impact of psychiatric education and training on attitude of medical students towards mentally ill: A comparative analysis
Tarun Yadav, Kishore Arya, Dinesh Kataria, Yatan Pal Singh Balhara
January-June 2012, 21(1):22-31
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.110944  PMID:23766574
Background: A number of studies from the western world have explored the negative beliefs held by individuals towards people with mental illness. The knowledge of attitude and awareness of undergraduate medical students towards psychiatry, mental health and mental disorders is of utmost importance. Objective: The current study aims at assessment of attitudes of medical students towards mental illness and mentally ill. Materials and Methods: The study used a cross-sectional survey design. The instruments used included Beliefs toward Mental Illness (BMI) scale, Attitudes to Mental Illness Questionnaire (AMIQ). ANOVA was carried out to compare the in between group differences for the four study groups. Additionally Bonferroni correction was used to conduct the post hoc analysis. Results: The interns were significantly more likely to agree with the statement that the mental disorders are recurrent; less likely to be of thought that the behavior of people with mental disorders is unpredictable; more likely to disagree with the fact that diagnosis of depression as described in the case vignette was going to damage the career of the individual; more likely to agree with the option of inviting a depressed person to a party; more likely to believe in fact that mentally ill individuals are more likely to be criminals as compared to medical students in different professional years. Conclusions: Adequate modifications to existing medical curriculum would help improve attitude of medical students towards mentally ill.
  6,068 126 5
Job satisfaction in health-care organizations
Kavita Bhatnagar, Kalpana Srivastava
January-June 2012, 21(1):75-78
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.110959  PMID:23766585
Job satisfaction among health-care professionals acquires significance for the purpose of maximization of human resource potential. This article is aimed at emphasizing importance of studying various aspects of job satisfaction in health-care organizations.
  5,791 89 3
Supernatural beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour in patients with schizophrenia
Natasha Kate, Sandeep Grover, Parmanand Kulhara, Ritu Nehra
January-June 2012, 21(1):49-54
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.110951  PMID:23766578
Background: Few studies have evaluated the supernatural beliefs of patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to study the personal beliefs, aetiological models and help seeking behaviour of patients with schizophrenia using a self-rated questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Seventy three patients returned the completed supernatural Attitude questionnaire. Results: 62% of patients admitted that people in their community believed in sorcery and other magico-religious phenomena. One fourth to half of patients believed in ghosts/evil spirit (26%), spirit intrusion (28.8%) and sorcery (46.6%). Two-third patients believed that mental illness can occur either due to sorcery, ghosts/evil spirit, spirit intrusion, divine wrath, planetary/astrological influences, dissatisfied or evil spirits and bad deeds of the past. 40% of the subjects attributed mental disorders to more than one of these beliefs. About half of the patients (46.6%) believed that only performance of prayers was sufficient to improve their mental status. Few patients (9.6%) believed that magico-religious rituals were sufficient to improve their mental illness but about one-fourth (24.7%) admitted that during recent episode either they or their caregivers performed magico-religious rituals. Conclusion: Supernatural beliefs are common in patients with schizophrenia and many of them attribute the symptoms of mental disorders to these beliefs.
  5,256 115 8
Current debates over nosology of somatoform disorders
Amlan K Jana, Samir Kumar Praharaj, Joyita Mazumdar
January-June 2012, 21(1):4-10
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.110939  PMID:23766571
There is a wide debate among the researchers and clinicians over the diagnostic categories subsumed under the rubric of somatoform disorders (SDs). Recent proposals vary from radical views that call for removing this category altogether to the conservative views that suggests cosmetic changes in the diagnostic criteria of SDs. We have the reviewed the relevant literature through PUBMED search supplemented with manual search on current concepts of SD.
  4,415 94 2
Effects of age, stage of disease, and educational level on cognitive dysfunction in non-demented idiopathic Parkinsonism: A preliminary report
Saptarshi Adhikari, Jayanti Basu, Shyamal Kumar Das, Amar Kumar Misra
January-June 2012, 21(1):32-38
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.110948  PMID:23766575
Background: Parkinsonism is known to be associated with clinically significant impairments on an array of cognitive deficits. The degree of impairment is dependent not only on the course of the disease, but also on other bio-social factors. The objective of the present study was to examine the cognitive dysfunction in non-demented idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) in relation to age, stage of disease, and educational level in a sample in Kolkata, India. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 51 (42 males, 9 females) right-handed patients suffering from non-demented IPD, of age between 40 and 82 years. Data were collected during on-phase medication by using the Kolkata Cognitive Screening Battery. Data were analyzed using means, standard deviations, and multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA). Results and Conclusion: The patients with IPD were impaired in comparison to the available normative data in almost all aspects of cognitive functioning and higher order mental processes. With increasing age, the patients showed greater impairment in delayed memory and recognition task. Patients of more severe stage showed greater impairment in MMSE, delayed recall, and information. Those with lower education had more impaired visuoconstructional ability, information, comprehension, similarities, and arithmetic.
  4,273 60 1
Women and mental health: Psychosocial perspective
Kalpana Srivastava
January-June 2012, 21(1):1-3
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.110938  PMID:23766570
  3,763 211 -
A study of autonomic functions and obesity in postmenopausal women
Arunima Chaudhuri, Nirmala G Borade, Jyotsna Tirumalai, Daniel Saldanha, Balaram Ghosh, Kalpana Srivastava
January-June 2012, 21(1):39-43
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.110949  PMID:23766576
Background: Easy accessibility to Medicare and better living conditions has increased life expectancy in recent years. There are over 60 million postmenopausal women above 55 years in India. Obesity, physical inactivity, and altered estrogen metabolism play an integrated role in contributing to the disease risk profile of postmenopausal women. These same risk factors also affect modulation of the autonomic nervous system. A study was undertaken to test the hypothesis whether there is indeed an alteration in autonomic functions in obese postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: 60 postmenopausal women without any gross systemic disease whose body mass index and waist/hip ratio were recorded. Subjects were divided into two groups of 36 Non-Obese and 24 Obese. The two groups were well matched for age and menopausal duration. The physical as well as physiological parameters like valsalva ratio, heart rate variation with deep breath test, heart rate response to postural change (30:15 R-R interval ratio), orthostatic tolerance test, and isometric handgrip test were recorded. Results: Results of valsalva ratio, deep breath test, and 30:15 R-R interval ratios and isometric handgrip test were significantly decreased and orthostatic tolerance values were significantly increased in Obese subjects. Conclusion: Findings show decreased sympathovagal activity with obesity in postmenopausal women.
  3,380 109 -
Migraine: Clinical pattern and psychiatric comorbidity
Manjeet Singh Bhatia, Ravi Gupta
January-June 2012, 21(1):18-21
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.110943  PMID:23766573
Background: Migraine is a common disorder which has psychiatric sequelae. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the clinical pattern and psychiatric comorbidity of migraine. Materials and Methods: 100 cases of migraine seen over a period of one year were analysed to know the sociodemographic characteristics, clinical pattern and psychiatric morbidity. Results: Maximum patients were between 31-40 years of age group (40%), females (78.0%), married (76%) and housewives (56.0%). Family history of migraine was present in 12% cases. Average age of onset was 22 years. Unilateral and throbbing type of headache was most common. The commonest frequency was one to two per week. Migraine without aura was commonest sub-type (80%). Generalized anxiety disorder (F41.1) was the most common psychiatric disorder (34%), followed by mixed anxiety and depressive disorder (F41.2) (18%) and depressive episode (F32) (14%). In 22% cases, no psychiatric disorder could be elicited. Conclusion: The present study confirms that majority patients with migraine had psychiatric disorders. This needs timely detection and appropriate intervention to treat and control the migraine effectively.
  3,206 119 2
Clozapine responsive catatonia: A series of five cases
Somsubhra Chattopadhyay, Indranil Saha, Amitava Dan, Kaberi Bhattacharyya
January-June 2012, 21(1):66-68
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.110955  PMID:23766582
The main objective of presenting the case series is that despite dramatic symptomatic response by intra venous lorazepam or electro convulsive therapy irrespective of primary diagnosis in catatonia cases some cases remain difficult to treat by conventional treatment. Here, we present five catatonia cases who did not respond to conventional treatment even when treated for primary psychiatric diagnosis along with treatment for catatonia. They ultimately responded partially or completely to clozapine only, which explains the multi-factorial causation of catatonia syndrome as postulated by different scientific research.
  3,193 51 5
Diabetes mellitus: A risk factor for cognitive impairment amongst urban older adults
SC Tiwari, Rakesh Kumar Tripathi, Siddiq Ahmad Farooqi, Rajesh Kumar, Garima Srivastava, Aditya Kumar
January-June 2012, 21(1):44-48
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.110950  PMID:23766577
Background: Studies reported in relation to diabetes mellitus and cognitive impairment are inconclusive. Diabetes mellitus is a wide spread physical illness amongst older adults. The study explores whether, it leads to cognitive impairment amongst older adults in comparison to those without diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: Study sample consisted of 900 subjects fulfilling the inclusion/exclusion criteria out of 1067 elderlies aged 55 years and above residing in a randomly selected ward of urban Lucknow. Pathological investigation was done on all elderlies to rule out diabetes mellitus. Out of 900 subjects 145 were found to have Diabetes Mellitus and rests 755 were without diabetes mellitus. These subjects were further divided into two groups: (i) with and (ii) without cognitive impairment based on detailed assessment of Mini Mental State Examination positive subjects by Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of the Elderly- Revised (CAMDEX-R). International Classification of Diseases-10 th revision criteria were used to make diagnosis. Data analysis was done calculating odds ratio, Chi square, and percentages. Results: Diabetes mellitus was found to be prevalent is 13.7% and 16.9% amongst older adults aged 55-59 years and 60 years and above respectively. Odds ratio 1.3 with CI 95% indicates that subjects with diabetes mellitus is 1.3 times at more risk to develop cognitive impairment amongst urban older adults than non-cognitively impaired subjects. But differences on Chi square test were found to be insignificant. Conclusion: There is a weak association between diabetes mellitus and cognitive impairment amongst urban older adults.
  3,003 115 1
Delusional parasitosis: Worms of the mind
Jyoti Prakash, R Shashikumar, PS Bhat, K Srivastava, S Nath, A Rajendran
January-June 2012, 21(1):72-74
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.110958  PMID:23766584
Delusional parasitosis is an uncommon psychotic illness. Patients often report to dermatologists and physicians for treatment and are brought to psychiatric attention only for associated psychological distress. One such case is discussed in this report.
  3,020 52 1
Treatment resistant non-catatonic mutism in schizophrenia responding to a combination of continuation electroconvulsive therapy and neuroleptics
Sandeep Grover, Alakananda Dutt, Kaustav Chakrabarty, Vineet Kumar
January-June 2012, 21(1):69-71
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.110957  PMID:23766583
Non-catatonic mutism in schizophrenia has been described less frequently in literature. We describe the case of a young male who presented with non-catatonic mutism, secondary to first rank symptoms, which was refractory to adequate antipsychotic trials (quetiapine, risperidone, aripiprazole, ziprasidone, and trifluperazine) and responded to a combination of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and neuroleptics partially. However, when the ECT was continued in the continuation phase, the patient started speaking.
  2,905 32 1
Musical obsessions
Amitabh Saha
January-June 2012, 21(1):64-65
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.110954  PMID:23766581
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common psychiatric illness. A case of OCD is presented, in which the chief symptom was recurrent imagery of musical sounds of different instruments experienced by the person. Patient was a musician who played various musical instruments. Such obsessions with predominant musical themes, lyrics, and tunes have not been described in detail in standard textbooks of psychiatry or phenomenology, nor are they considered in the various diagnostic procedures for OCD. These symptoms are rare and may, at times, go unnoticed because of low clinical awareness.
  2,593 44 1
Psychiatric morbidity in school children who suffered a stampede
Manjeet S Bhatia, Shruti Srivastava, Anurag Jhanjee
January-June 2012, 21(1):61-63
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.110953  PMID:23766580
Background: Stampede is described as a sudden movement of a mass of people in response to a particular circumstance or stimulus. Human stampedes are quite often reported from crowded places like places of worship, sporting events, political rallies, etc. There are reports of development of posttraumatic stress disorder, depressive and anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents subsequent to both natural and man-made disasters. The present tragedy struck in a Government Secondary School in Delhi on September 9, 2009. The study describes the long-term psychiatric morbidity in children following stampede. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted by the department of psychiatry of a tertiary care hospital. A total of 38 children (all adolescent girls) were registered at the casualty of the hospital and 1 absconded, 5 were brought dead. A total of 32 children were included in the study. After first assessment in the casualty, subsequent assessments at 8 weeks and 6 months were done using semi-structured performa, GHQ and Child's reaction to traumatic event scale (CRTES-Revised). Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17. Results: The age-group of the children were 12-20 years(mean 14.3), all girls, studying in grades - VII to X Eight weeks follow up GHQ score was high in 27 (87%). On CRTESQ-R scale, 22 children were in high distress group (71%). Twenty-two children had symptoms of PTSD and five were in moderate distress group. Eleven children also had a comorbid diagnosis of depressive disorder, six had phobic disorder and generalized anxiety disorder. There were statistically significant differences in mean GHQ scores at baseline and at 6 months follow up. There was also significant decrease in CRTESQ-R scale scores between baseline and 6 months. Conclusion: The children who were victims of stampede warrant the need for long-term intervention.
  2,530 35 1
Psychosocial correlates of human immunodeficiency virus infected patients
Megha Agrawal, Kalpana Srivastava, Sunil Goyal, Suprakash Chaudhury
January-June 2012, 21(1):55-60
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.110952  PMID:23766579
Background: Reactions of people to a diagnosis of HIV and its effect on well-being vary greatly. There is paucity of Indian studies in this area. Aim: To assess the level of anxiety, depression and quality of life in HIV seropositive individuals. Materials and Methods: It was a descriptive cross-sectional study with a sample size of 50 seropositive individuals. They were assessed using a specially prepared proforma containing several questions pertaining to their demographic profile, details of HIV status and high-risk behavior, questions on family support and discrimination. In addition, all subjects were evaluated with WHO well-being index, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and Hospital Anxiety, and Depression Scale. Results: Anxiety was noted in 54% of the individuals whereas only 30% suffered from depression. GHQ showed psychological morbidity in 44% individuals. WHO well-being index noted poor psychological well-being in 46% of individuals. Conclusion: The high level of anxiety and depression in HIV seropositive subjects reiterates the importance of psychological counseling in HIV afflicted individuals in conjunction with suitable pharmacotherapy.
  2,499 65 2
Tobacco-alcohol amblyopia: Nonexistent entity
Andrzej Grzybowski, Martyna Pieniazek
January-June 2012, 21(1):79-79
DOI:10.4103/0972-6748.110961  PMID:23766586
  1,925 36 -
Author reply
Jyoti Prakash
January-June 2012, 21(1):79-80
  1,690 33 -